Posts Tagged ‘bnp’

  1. Do 64slice MDCT  in all patients who has  a coronary event and follow it up with catheter based CAG.
  2. Use liberally the new biochemical marker ,  serum  B-naturetic peptide (BNP) to diagnose cardiac failure in lieu of basal auscultation.
  3. Advice  cardiac resynchronisation therapy in all patients  who are in class 4 cardiac failure with a wide qrs complex .
  4. As it is may be considered a  crime to administer empirical  heparin, do ventilation perfusion scan in all cases with suspected pulmonary embolism.
  5. Do serial CPK MB and troponin levels in all patients with well  established  STEMI .
  6. Open up all occluded coronary arteries irrespective  of symptoms and muscle viability.
  7. Consider  ablation of pulmonary veins as an  initial strategy in  patients with recurrent idiopathic AF. If it is not feasible  atleast occlude their left atrial appendage with watch man  device.
  8. Never tell  your patients   the  truths  about the  diet , exercise &  lifestyle modification (That can  cure most of the early hypertension) . Instead encourage the  use of  newest ARBs  or even  try direct renin antoagonists   to treat all those patients in  stage 1 hypertension.
  9. Avoid regular heparin in acute coronary syndromes   as  it  is a disgrace to use it  in today’s world. Replace all prescription of heparin with  enoxaparine  or  still better ,  fondaparinux  whenever  possible.
  10. Finally never discharge  a  heftily  insured patient   until  he completes all the  cardiology investigations  that are available in your hospital  .

Coming soon :  10 more ways to  increase cost of cardiology care . . .beyond common man’s reach

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Ventricular remodeling  follows large myocardial infarction .This term denotes to  change in size , shape  and function  of the ventricle   due to altered  myocyte geometry .It is now believed  , this  process begins to occur very early  following a STEMI.(less than 24hours)


In which MI remodeling is more common ?

Any MI of large size , especially  anterior  and lateral MI.  Inferior and posterior MI are less affected by adverse remodeling.The incidence is up to 20% of all myocardial infarction ,  if left untreated. Ventricular aneurysm formation and dyskinetic segments can be termed as the worst form of remodeling. The old terminologies of infarct extension and expansion could by synonymous with ventrilar   remodeling .(Note : Every patient with STEMI undergoes some form of physiological remodeling that should not be confused with progressive pathological remodeling , we are discussing  here ! )

What is the clinical impact of remodeling ? How to prevent it ?

Progressive cardiac failure and a  poor outcome .  It may provoke ventricular arrhythmias. ACE inhibitors (CONSENSUS study 1992 )  has since revolutionized  the pharmacological  prevention of adverse remodeling.

How to recognise left ventricular remodeling ?

Many methods are available .

  • 2 D Echocardiography
  • Tissue doppler
  • LV angiogram
  • MRI

These imaging methods diagnose remodeling  only after it manifest* .We know remodeling is a cellular and molecular process .The earliest trigger for remodeling is the mechanical stretch and wall stress on the ventricles.Large areas of necrosed myocardium and  the adjacent normal myocardium sets a perfect stage for eccentric pulling of myocardial segments and unregulated slippage of myocytes.

* Diagnosing fully established  ventricular remodeling  serves ,  no great   purpose as it is very difficult to reverse it by pharmacological methods.it requires complex surgery.

What is the effect of mechanical stretch on cellular function ?

It is well known  myocyte granules secrete Type B  -Naturetic peptide  in response to stretch. It could be a very early sign of adverse remodeling. So monitoring of  BNP may give us an opportunity to intensively treat those patients who are likely to land in progressive cardiac failure.

A baseline level of NT-proBNP >120 pmol/L identified patients  prone for adverse remodeling .Serial measurements showed further increase. It is possible to identify adverse remodeling of LV by documenting fresh elevation of BNP following MI .

Reference :

1 )Nilsson JC, Groenning BA, Nielsen G, et al. Left ventricular remodeling in the first year after acute myocardial infarction and the predictive value of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide. Am Heart J 2002;143:696-702.


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Diagnostic issues in cardiac failure : A  febrile pleural effusion in a patient with LV dysfunction .

Is it a transudate or exudate ?  How to confirm the pleural effusion is primarily cardiac failure related ?

When the classical protein criteria is inadequate or prone for errors

Try this more specific marker  within the pleural fluid

N-Terminal Brain naruretic peptide

Pleural fluid NT-proBNP is very useful in establishing the diagnosis of HF-associated effusions, and it confirms this diagnosis . The measurement of NT-proBNP rather than serum to pleural protein gradient is recommended for identifying mislabeled cardiac transudates.

Reff :Biomarkers of Heart Failure in Pleural Fluid. Chest. 2009 Apr 10.

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