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Archive for October, 2017

hole in heart asd vsd hole in raod potholes

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/potholes-claimed-6-lives-a-day-in-india-in-2016/articleshow/61283355.cms

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Primary PCI (pPCI) is a  glorious revascularization strategy for STEMI practiced for over 2 decades  but still has not proved its perceived mettle convincingly as a large population based strategy. In the mean time, the utility value  of  thrombolysis  was systematically  (Intentionally too! )  downgraded in the minds of both academic and public mind.
Truth can’t be buried for long. Series of revelations are coming up restoring the superiority of early thrombolysis over pPCI even in PCI capable centers.
In 2013, the high Impact STREAM trial argued  for pharmacoinvasive approach within 3 hrs as it was at equipoise with a pPCI. Now, EARLY -MYO  from China vouch  for pharmaco- Invasive approach  till 6 hours. (Just published in Circulation September 2017 )
 
 I think we need to wait for some more time , for another prevailing  falsehood that need to be busted ,(Looking  out for some straight thinking new generation cardiologist to do it !)
What is that ?
Many of us have misunderstood(rather made to !)  that pharmaco Invasive has a defined therapeutic endpoint ie taming  & stenting the IRA . This is absolute ignorance  happening even in state of the art centres ,ironically this beleaguered concept is  backed by peer-reviewed papers from premier journals. The fact of the matter is , If thrombolysis is stunningly successful (Which at the least happens in 50 % ) one can stop with that , it’s also a therapeutic endpoint at least for time being .
Is coronary angiogram a baseline test like ECG ?
That’s what current cardiologists with cutting edge knowledge  seem to believe !  Do you agree ! I am sure I’m not !
 Patients with STEMI who had successful thrombolysis who had an  apparently uncomplicated course (Assessed by strict clinical ECG, ECHO criteria) need not go for coronary angiogram in the immediate future.In fact some good guidelines strongly argue for it and call it as Ischemia driven PCI ! but very few seem to respect that concept.)This will not only contain the cost and ensure the vast majority of Inappropriate (  scientific quackery) coronary plumping activity in human race.
Searching for an elusive data ! Can some one help ?
I have been searching for data , from all those major pharmaco invasive studies (Which is not being reported /shared or analysed )
How many  patients in the “success cohort” after thrombolysis  who subsequently land up with urgent PCI related complications when trying to stent an already reperfused IRA or while tackling  coexisting Innocent or non-innocent non IRA lesions ?
* Complications and adverse events  may be acceptable in patients who had failed thrombolysis or who are  unstable  but even minor adverse events are forbidden in patient with a truly successful and asymptomatic patient.
Final message
So called scientific facts have very short half life !  for the simple reason they are let loose in human domain prematurely !
Reference 

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The age old  statistics , 30 % of deaths following STEMI happen even before patients reach the hospital may still be true. But ,there is an untold story that happen regularly in the rehabilitation phase .Its ironical many  apparently stabilised STEMI patients still lose their life just before they get discharged or within 30 days .More often than not this happens in the toilet when they strain for defecation. At least a dozen deaths I have witnessed in the last few years. Of course we have resuscitated many near deaths as well.

What exactly happens to these ill-fated patients inside the toilet  ?

Straining is often an isometric exercise and prolonged strain ends up in   valsalva maneuver , a prolonged valsalva strain realistically shuts both vena cava due to raised intrathoracic  pressure .Vena caval shutdown is equivalent to asystole and imagine the chaos in the  delicately recannalised LAD when the coronary perfusion pressure nose dives (Even the  stented segment in IRA is vulnerable as distal flow restoration may take time   !)

The sudden systemic hypotension leads to  fall in coronary arterial pressure proximal  to the lesion. The normal physiological response to proximal fall would be corresponding distal fall maintaining the flow gradient . If the microvascular bed is damaged( loss of capacity to vasodilate ) this distal fall may not happen promptly .So its acute standstill of flow  across IRA ( or even Non IRA if it has a lesion )  triggering events that rapidly destabilise  unless intervened.

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hemodynamics of ffr lad valsalva 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other modes of sudden toilet deaths

*The opposite process , ie sudden spikes of blood pressure (In contrast to hypotension of  Valsalva strain ) can  occur as straining is equivalent to Isometric exercise which increase afterload .This can either cause LV failure, another episode of ACS, myocardial stretching, even tear it and result in mechanical complication.

  1. Acute LVF triggered by spikes of BP /new onset ischemic MR.
  2. Free wall rupture and tamponade.
  3. Emboli getting dislodged from LV during strain

How to anticipate and prevent these  deaths ?

  • All complicated STEMI patients should have special rehabilitation program.
  • A simple rule could be patients with persistent ST elevation with  are prone for further events.They should be flagged. (Stented / TIMI flows matters very little !)
  • Restrict all vigorous activity for minimum of one to two weeks ( I am not a believer of pre-discharge stress test even in uncomplicated MI  )
  • Use laxatives adequately.
  • Western toilets may have an hemodynamic advantage. Indian closets that require squatting which increase the venous return , ultimately it compromises coronary hemodynamics more. We don’t understand as yet ,what will happen if one perfoms a valsalva  and  squatting simultaneously.(Which will prevail over the other ?)
  • Finally toilet shouldn’t  be locked during rehabilitation for safety purposes.
  • All post STEMI pateints should have registered with emergency contact and alert service ready.

Has primary PCI has reduced the sudden deaths  in Post MI period in current era ?

I’m afraid , I can’t say a dogmatic yes . May be ,to a certain extent , However,  it has created a new subset of perfectly  stented still prone for ACS.A physiologically or pharmacologically  recannlised IRA generally heals by themself. A Stented IRA  hands over  the responsiblity of healing the injured IRA to us  .Ofcourse ,we try to do it  with lot of difficulty  .(Different versions of  confused DAPT  regimens !)

Final message 

Please note , “discharge to 30 day mortality” following STEMI   which is  upto 2 %  .It is the most neglected  and  mismanaged phase in coronary care .Toilets are definitely not a benign place for them and all the good work done by you in cath lab and CCU can be nullified in few Innocuous looking seconds !

Postample 

Is Toilet room death amounts to  negligence / mis-management  inside hospital ?

May be there is a reason for this argument. When to ambulate in complicated STEMI is a big question. ? Though we have guidelines some of the patients are reluctant to use assisted service.

I think its a calculated risk , and  there is trade off between the benefits of early ambulation and potential exertion related risk.

One such argument by a cardiologist in a medicolegal situation goes like this. “I thought my patient’s heart  is stable enough to use toilet , it misfired , hence it is just an error of  judgment. I can’t be faulted.  Though this argument appear logical , many times it can’t hold water in court of law !”

Reference

1.Siebes M, Chamuleau SA, Meuwissen M,   Influence of hemodynamic conditions on fractional flow reserve: parametric analysis of underlying model Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002 Oct;283(4):H1462-70

Further reading

Cardiac rehabilitation NICE guidelines  : Myocardial infarction: cardiac rehabilitation and prevention of further cardiovascular disease 2013

 

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