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Archive for the ‘cardiology -Therapeutics’ Category

Why ISCHEMIA trial conclusions often make us nervous?

Because, we know we can’t follow the lessons from it with true intent, as many of us are near slaves to Invisible Interventional forces in some form or other.

I would think, ISCHEMIA trial in one sense was a wasted effort. We always knew OMT is superior to any sort of PCI in stable CAD  (Backed up with COURAGE /BARI 2D/and of course the deadly exposure by ORBITA )

Anyway, we did ISCHEMIA for the sake of deniers, with huge public funding to prove the truth as truth.

Still, I am sure ISCHEMIA will be looked down, by most elite Intervenionlists. For the rest, it becomes a tough fight with their conscience. 

A recent review on European cardiology review 

Final message 

I don’t know, how many more trials would be required to tell us the same story all over again. Hope we grow enough COURAGE to follow the ISCHEMIA lessons. Let us (try to ) make a full stop on this issue.

 

 

 

 

 

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Some of the questions  addressed  in this presentation

1.What happens to fetal blood pressure during maternal hypotension how good is fetal autoregulation?

2.Why is LSCS increasingly preferred mode of delivery in heart disease complicating pregnancy challenging the traditional scientific concept?

3.What is likely hood of patients with moderate mitral stenosis developing pulmonary edema during prolonged 2nd stage of labor?

3.What is the missing link between PIH and PPCM? How prepartum cardiomyopathy differs from postpartum?

4.Is Eisenemneger really an absolute contraindication for pregnancy?

5. How can we continue VKAs warfarin or Acitrom throughout pregnancy? What are the potential problems of double switching one at 6th week from VKA to Heparin and again from heparin to VKA  at  12th week?

Hope, the man-made hematological bridge in pregnancy has been finally liberated from confusion (Who is saying not yet?)

 

6. On what evidence base the safety margin of 5mg cutoff for Warfarin and 3mg for Acitorm was decided?

7. Who is insisting on us to do Anti-Xa monitoring for LMWH in pregnancy? Is it really needed? What does the American society of hematology say?  (ASH guidelines for VTE in pregancy 2018) Why we don’t insist on Xa estimation in acute coronary syndrome?

8. What is the inflection point of at which risk of termination is almost at equipoise with continuing pregnancy in various heart diseases.

A GIF run-through of the presentation.

PDF & video version will be posted

 

The ultimate reference 

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How many times you have treated cardiac arrhythmia in both emergency & non-emergency situations?

Infinite times.

How many times did you really bother to know the mechanism of a given arrhythmia before ordering medication or shocking?

Hmm,.. let me think. (Except for AVNRT/ AVRT, and few VTs, very rarely I have worried about the mechanism  !)

Why is it so? because treatment takes priority and we are able to tame the arrhythmia even without knowing the real mechanism.

The following slide is a gross summary of the cardiac arrhythmia mechanism

Understanding cardiac arrhythmia is vitally important for a few reasons in a few settings.

  • In acute settings, we need to know automatic tachycardias will not respond to shocks. Reentry tachycardias will respond more promptly. (Of course, we may not know it till we shock ) Calcium blockers like verapamil might block triggered activity in MAT. Overdrive pacing is the answer for many automatic tachycardias and some refractory reentrant tachycardias (ATP protocols in ICD has taught us this ) 
  • In the chronic setting when you contemplate mapping, locating, and ablating arrhythmias, mechanisms are important. The task here is locating slow conduction paths and decoding the diastolic circuit around the scar  (If you plan ICD, knowledge about mechanism  becomes redundant again)

  • Finally, knowing the mechanism of arrhythmia is a fascination by itself to help understand the great subject called cardiac electrophysiology, where 100s of ion channels work nonstop drawing the action potential on a moment to moment basis sustaining our life.

A challenge

Can you localize a VT and find the mechanism in a patient who is Ischemic /hypoxic and acidotic? You can never do it. Please note, most polymorphic VTs can’t be localized. The mechanism is either automaticity, trigger activity, or even micro-reentry. You need to shock and look for the causes.(Link to How does the treatment of monomorphic VT differ from Polymorphic VT? )

Final message

Should we need to know about the mechanism of arrhythmia we treat?  Definitely yes, if you have that passion to know the truth, or else just order Amiodarone or shock and check out of CCU. (Of course, we have a very good option of calling EP consult the next day.)

 A review article on mechannism of cardiac arrhymias

Rev Esp Cardiol. 2012;65(2):174–185

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           Practice of cardiology is simple as long we don’t dwell deep into coronary physiology.

One of my patients asked, why he was told his total occlusion in LAD appears safer now, which was subtotal a few months ago.I told him, it is indeed true. It is the fear of subtotal disease that’s prone to a fresh coronary event. In total occlusion, chances of that happening are less or nil.

 

How can you say 100% block is safe?  Is that always true?

No, it’s not always true. He was surprised when I said it is not 100 %, even 90% lesion can be safe if it’s not causing significant angina and responding to OMT. Of course, It is the morphology and stability of the lesion that will dictate* the outcome in the subtotal occlusion. If the lesion is stable, FFR is good >.8 (TMT is poor man’s FFR equivalent )  you can leave it as it is. Doing OCT /Virtual histology /NIR spectroscopy to define the vulnerability of plaque is neither practical nor desirable (Extreme academics is injurious to health) 

So it is not the degree of the block that’s going to matter, but the effects of that block on distal circulation that will decide the rules of the myocardial revascularisation game. But unfortunately, both you, (the patients) we (the cardiologist) are finding it so difficult to come to terms with this basic truth in spite of multiple guidelines. 

 

Meanwhile, CTO however makes it much easier to make a decision. One need not bother the content of CTO unless you plan an Intervention. I guess there is no FFR for CTO. Are we aware of any studies that have quantified antegrade flow across a 10% patent LAD and compare it with the Collateral flow in LAD in 100% CTO?

We have long glorified a concept of the open artery hypothesis. (Mainly in Post STEMI though) No one has dared to test and compare a hypothesis that a closed artery might still score over the open in at least some of the subsets of stable CAD. Such a study can never be ethically forbidden after all its a well-observed truth in the real world. 

Reference 

Trials on CTO  revascularisation DECISION CT (Not useful )   EURO-CTO  (May be useful) 

 

 

 

EURO CTO https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy220/4990878?redirectedFrom=fulltext

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This post was originally written in 2013.

A middle-aged man with STEMI  came to our CCU.  It is just another case of STEMI and asked my fellow to lyse.

Anterior STEM ecg

But it was not the case . He, told me, Sir, the patient had a syncope following chest pain and he has injured his face and Jaw. He was actively bleeding. When I saw this face, it was indeed  frightening.Strptokinase induced bleeding

What shall we do ? When a patient  with STEMI presents with bleeding facial Injury

  1. Rush for Immediate PCI (Which was  of course not possible in our place as it happened out of office hours! )
  2. Take that ultimate risk and thrombolysis
  3. Give only heparin ( Many times it is as good as  lysis )

We took a (bold ? ) decision to thrombolyse with streptokinase.(After  a CT scan which ruled out any Intracranial bleed like hematoma etc) Clopidogrel was also given.

absolute contrindication for thrombolysis facial trauma

Patient continued to bleed in the initial 3 hours and was oozing in the next 12 hours. Blood transfusion was contemplated, but it was not required. Dental surgeon opinion was sought, his teeth were pulled and a compressive bandage was applied.It arrested the bleeding.The ECG settled down.LV function was almost normal with minimal wall motion defect. He is posted for a coronary angiogram later.

Final message

 There may not be anything called “Absolute contraindication” everything appears relative

I presented this in the weekly clinical meet,  with a tag line of  How to save a patient, apparently by violating a standard guideline. Not surprisingly, It evoked laughter amusement from learned physicians. I wasn’t. Guidelines are meant to guide us agreed.They can not command us. They are not legally binding documents as well! Many lives can be saved if only we have the courage to overrule when it’s required.

Afterthought

Had this patient has bled to death during lysis what would have happened to the treating doctor? (or )If the patient has died due to MI, because of deferred thrombolysis, what would be the line of argument?

2020 update.

This case scenario is a non-issue as of today. With so much experience, we straight away do PCI . Just manage the oral bleeding if any.

 

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The Country of mine with 140 crore population, is under complete lockdown mode. We are anxiously tense in one aspect, but enjoying the free time due to the peculiar “Corona effect” on cardiac emergencies.

Unable to understand you . . . please go away

What happened to our 24/7 busy CCU ? Does it happen only in my hospital? Can’t be. Let me check it right now. I called my fellow, who has since become a leading cardiologist in the nearby town.

guidelines

I have since called many of my close contacts. In both Government and private hospitals. The pooled data were analyzed in a virtual cloud memory. I am fairly convinced, our observation was indeed true.

The following can be considered as near facts.

  • There have been at least 50% minimum dip of Overall ACS cases. It even went down to 80%reduction in a few places
  • Even UA/NSTEMI showed a significant drop.
  • There was general hesitancy to do primary PCI even if it’s technically Indicated.
  • All most all STEMI were lysed. Heparin was liberally used.
  • Many patients preferred telephonic consultations.ECGs were reported over mobile platforms
  • None of the back pains & gastric pains were admitted as atypical chest pain.
  • Most cardiologists closed down their regular OPD
  • For the first time, Govt institutions were considered worthy to refer.

Why ACS Incidence nose dived?

  1. Under recognition?
  2. Under-reported ?
  3. Low Incidence?
  4. Low rate of referral?

STEMI that goes under-recognized and unreported? The consensus was, it’s less important factor as currently, very few are unaware of the Importance of chest pain and widespread availability of emergency services 108/911

Does that mean real incidence has Indeed come down?

The global atherosclerotic burden,(the substrate for STEMI) in the society is nearly constant. Still, the incidence of ACS has declined dramatically in the lockdown period. This conveys an important message and compels a search (research)

The plaques that are waiting to rupture in the population somehow getting a reprieve. Mind you, the presence of a risky plaque in LAD alone won’t cause a STEMI. It needs a trigger. The day to day physical stress, spikes of catecholamine, emotional swings, traffic pollution etc. The only plausible explanation appears to be the vulnerable patients along with their plaques are also locked up inside its Intimo-medial home. (Armchairs and bed rests can not only treat STEMI , they can prevent it too !)

Why the incidence of NSTEMI /UA has also come down?

Again, the same factors might operate. But, more likely self-stabilizing pseudo / Low-risk ACS is a distinct possibility.

A significant chunk of UA /?CSA/suspected NSTEMI patients come from referrals by GPs.The biggest pool of cases for cath labs comes from this group of noncardiac/Atypical chest pain syndromes*. Which shows some Incidental (In)significant lesions that subsequently becomes a cardiac emergency.

Since they have reduced their consultations the numbers have quite significantly reduced.

*Chronic CAD masquerading as ACS is not a forbidden concept

Final message

We are taught some important lifetime lessons in cardiac practice by this 20 nm, lifeless RNA particles.

1. The bulk of the ACS in the society is triggered by the day to day stress of the fast and furious “Just do it” world. The mitigating effect of social lockdown on physical and emotional stress on plaque dynamics on the incidence of ACS will be a big research subject in the coming months.

2. More importantly, It has exposed the existence of one more hidden epidemic in the community “manufactured coronary emergencies” propagated by a resistant cardio tropic virus that has disseminated deep into evidence-based cardiology. Let us cleanse this virus too after finishing off the Corona.

Postamble

It’s just a crazy opinion from a scribbling, blogger. However, I am sure, It’s only a matter of time, great journals like NEJM, JAMA, and Lancet will be screaming the same truths in a more palatable evidence-based manner.

Meanwhile, I can see early signs of restlessness(withdrawal) among us waiting for early release from the lock-up and resume the customary mode of evidence-based cardiology practice.

As I complete this write up . . . .surprised to find this report from TCT MD. Similarities if found, could only be coincidental.

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Pericardial effusion is often detected in patients with Infective endocarditis. Incidence can be as high as 25% . Most often it is mild, can be moderate in few.

Mechanism

  1. Sympathetic effusion in response to endocardial infection. It’s never more than minimal. (Evidence ? it’s only an assumption)
  2. IE related cardiac failure (Raised systemic venous pressure to which pericardial veins drain)
  3. Local sepsis, Abcess formation tracks to pericardial space through transmural lymphatics
  4. Fungal , granulomatous , Tuberculous IE (Rare) Here IE and PE  share the same pathology
  5. Part of systemic sepsis activated Immune mechanism (Polyseroists)
  6. Renal Involvement of IE-Renal failure
  7. Postoperative pericardial effusion in Prosthetic valve IE (Common, often loculated)

Clinical Implication

  • If the pericardial effusion is more than mild, it often denotes worse outcome. This implies more extensive infection or a marker of extracardiac causes of effusion like renal dysfunction.
  • Effusion may predispose to local dissemination of infection and ends up as peri-annular abscess is whether it is a cause or effect of effusion remains to be understood.It is often exudate as one would expect, but transudative  effusions also occur and would indicate more benign course.
  • The sterility of pericardial fluid has not been proven. Culture studies are rarely done from effusions associated with IE.
  • Pericardial effusions appear more often seen in IE of right heart valves. They turn out to be  IV drug abusers.
  • Contained rupture of an abscess needs to be differentiated from effusion

Can we give steroids for PE associated with IE?

Steroids can rapidly plug the inflammatory pores in the from the pericardial surface.It may also prevent future constriction. Currently, routine steroid therapy is not advised in infective pathology . If the infection is confirmed and is being taken care of by antimicrobial therapy there could be a role for steroids with user discretion.

Final message

During the echocardiographic evaluation of IE, the presence of pericardial effusion should be specifically looked for. These patients should be flagged and will require monitoring as the prognosis of PE complicating IE is a concern unless proved benign.

Reference

Two studies one from Spain and other from Egypt looked into this issue specifically.

 

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Catheter based interventions in TOF  has caught the imagination of  Interventional cardiologists.decades ago. (Quereshi reported first in 1988 Royal Liverpool hospital ) .Somehow it could not develop into a full-fledged modality. The key issue in TOF  is,  RVOT obstruction is infundibular with some degree of valvular involvement. While the valvular component is amenable for easy correction by balloon, the infundibular stenosis requires some form of cutting or splitting. Embryologically,  the malalignment of IVS is the primary mechanism of obstruction. The balloon catheter is will find it difficult to tackle the alignment defect. .Obviously, surgeons can do a comprehensive RVOT reconstruction.

Things are beginning to change. Cutting balloons are available. Various dedicated VSD devices are being developed. Closure of large sub-aortic VSD  followed by  RVOT dilatation appears challenging task but distinctly possible in the near future.

Few cases of palliative RVOT dilatation with a balloon  in critical TOF  is been attempted We hope, in the coming decades at least simple forms of TOF are conquered by the interventional cardiologists!

Hardware: A small profile  coronary  cutting balloon  from Boston scientific .

What is in store for the future ?

3D printing of live heart and designer device or deployable patches for the malaligned VSD is possible. Currently, intracardiac ultrasound would assist the procedure.

RVOT reconstruction with RVOT stenting and percutaneous valves (Melody or Right sided TAVR equivalents) is already been done in post-ICR residual obstructions or late RVOT failure

Coronary cutting balloon flextome tof pulmonary valvuloplasty coronary hard ware

Flextome -Coronary cutting balloon

Balloon pulmonary valvotomy for tof tetrology of fallot

balloon angioplasty for TOF cutting balloon

pulmonary valvotomy in tof tetrology

pulmonary valvotomy in tof tetrology 3

 Other References

1.Boucek MM, Webster HE, Orsmond GS, Ruttenberg HD. Balloon pulmonary valvotomy: palliation for cyanotic heart disease. Am Heart J. 1988;115:318-322.

2.Qureschi SA, Kirk CR, Lamb RK, Arnold R, Wilkinson JL. Balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve in the first year of life in patients with tetralogy of Fallot: a preliminary study. Br Heart J. 1988; 60:232-235.

 3.Parsons JM, Ladusans EJ, Qureshi SA. Growth of the pulmonary artery after neonatal balloon dilatation of the right ventricular outflow tract in an infant with tetralogy of Fallot and atrioventricular septal defect. Br Heart J. 1989;62:65-68.

4.De Geeter P, Weisburd P, Dillenseger P, Willard D. Valvuloplastie pulmonaire percutanée palliative dans les formes néonatales de tétralogie de Fallot. Arch Fr Pediatr. 1989;46:117-119.

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 When half a dozen guidelines from extremely evidence based “Esteemed cardiac societies”  decide to confront an Incomprehensive cardiologist , there is no other way , but to create  a personalised i-Guidelines on STEMI !

*(i-Idiotic)

 

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