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Archive for the ‘early repolarisation syndrome’ Category

A 5-minute session: Answers are my own. Please cross-check.

1. Is Brugada syndrome clinical or ECG diagnosis?

Always clinical. Never get confused on this.

2. Spontaneous type 1 vs Induced Type 1 (from type 2) which carries more risk?

Both are risky since they are close cousins. But, spontaneous type 1 is the dreaded devil. 

3. Is Brugada primarily a defect of myocardial depolarization or repolarisation?

Not clear. Often in both. In fact a mismatch between them. (Don’t ask how Na+ Channel defect affects repolarisation !)

4. Is Brugada VT is monomorphic, polymorphic?

Both. What determines morphology is not clear though. (All de-nova monomorphic VT will degenerate to polymorphic en route to cardiac arrest)

5. Should  Fever induced Brugada pattern be investigated further?

Better, it is not to be reported in ECG. May not be important in the majority if there is no adverse family history. (If the patient is well educated and afflicted  by Dr.Google and cardiologists can’t escape from ordering sophisticated tests)     

6. What is the overlap between ERS and Brugada?

It is all about the Idiosyncrasy of the K+ channel phenotypes ( Transmural dispersion heterogeneity )  

7. Is a benign Brugada better than a malignant ERS?

Yes, it would seem so. (Inferior or Infero -lateral ERS prone for primary VF in case they develop ischemic / ? also non-ischemic stress)

8. How important is the link between Brugada and Long QT 3 syndrome?

A rare entity, but It is double jeopardy for VT risk. The entire action potential width is vulnerable right from phase 0 to 3 or 4 A case report Sandhu A Clin Case Rep. 2017;5(8):1315-1319.

9. Is Amiodarone really contraindicated in VT?

Not really. Though Amiodarone unmasks Brugada, it can still be used during episodes of VT in patients with manifest or unmanifest Brugada. Maybe in Long QT 3 overlap, it may perpetuate the VT.

10. How important is the structural myocardial defect in Brugada?

Not important in the majority. Though localized RVOT abnormalities are noted in some..RV abaltion can be succesful in odd case.

11. What happens to the ST segment in Brugada during exercise stress?

ST-segment may normalize in some. A stress test can help to risk stratify.  Subramanian M, J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2017 Jun;28(6):677-683.0

12. Which drug is probably best for Brugada as of now?

Quininde , A fairly specific blocker of Ito current. However, it needs to be used diligently. Management of Brugada Syndrome: Belhassen B, Rahkovich M, Michowitz Y, Glick A, Viskin S Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2015 Dec; 8(6):1393-402.

13. Is ICD definitive therapy?

Obviously not. But, definitely life-saving in high-risk survivors. I guess definitive therapy is possible for future generations through the science of genetic reprogramming of Na+ channels. (Of course, our planet shouldn’t succumb to man-made climatic arrhythmia, by then ) 

14. Does widespread genetic testing & screening of families help in the management and reduce anxiety?

Cracking the genomic code of cardiac ion channels is the ultimate sophistication (Blueprint of fate ?) However, there is no guarantee this information is going to ease out the family members who harbor a genocopy with or without a phenocopy. 

15. Is Brugada getting undue attention in cardiology literature compared to many other common arrhythmias?

      You can answer this …………………………………….

 

Further reading

Li KHC, Lee S, Yin C, et al. Brugada syndrome: A comprehensive review of pathophysiological mechanisms and risk stratification strategies [published correction appears in Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 2020 Dec 19;32:100699]. Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 2020;26:100468. Published 2020 Jan 21. doi:10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100468

 

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J point is a critical point in the  ECG  when the ventricles hand over the baton in  the  electrical relay race from depolarization to repolarization .This the time the sodium  channels extinguish itself  and the potassium current begins its activity  from Phase 0 to 1 .

If the  potassium channels  activate little early and snatch the baton prematurely from sodium , we get early repolarization pattern .When this happens , the J point of ECG show a conspicuous wave  called J wave , originally  denoting  Junctional wave between QRS/ST segment  (Now  perceived as  Jitter waves ?) The other implication of premature K+ activity is , lifting up of  ST segment , making it the most common cause of non ischemic ST elevation.

* J wave in hypothermia is referred to as Osborne wave and  may not be  not related to ERS(Ref.4)

J wave and J point early repolarisation syndrome

Image source.www.cardiology.org

The Ito current is responsible for the phase  1 of action potential (AP), where a rapid outward k + ion flux take place and draws the dome of AP . The dynamics of Ito is complex .It depends  upon the density of epicardial K + channels , which are  clustered in a heterogeneous manner .There seems to be a concentration gradient   along the epicardium and endocardium , making the wave appear prominent in some. This is especially true in healthy, athletic  male population  where we have some evidence for androgen  to  play a role on how  these channels will behave.Here comes the overlap between Brugada  syndrome and ERS as well.

The subset of patients with J wave pattern were recently shown to have increased risk of primary VF due to phase 2 reentry ,  when they develop ACS. (Rather J wave pattern was more common in patients who had primary VF following STEMI(Ref 1).This resulted in a spate of worrying articles .Now we know , the  fear is  largely unfounded ,the risk is far less.

Current thinking is,  persons who have asymptomatic ERS pattern with prominent J waves should not be investigated electro-physiologically . (Please remember , every human  heart can be induced  to VF in EP lab  if appropriately  stimulated ! )

In fact , I used to tell the  young men  who  harbor  prominent J wave , as a marker of healthy heart  rather. Let us not  fear them with a remote risk  that could be as  negligible as risk of  intercontinental flight crashing into the ocean  !

References

1.Haissaguerre M, Derval N, Sacher F, et al. Sudden cardiac arrest associated with early repolarization. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2016–2023.

2.Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation “Le Syndrome d’Haïssaguerre” and the Fear of J Waves , Sami Viskin, J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53(7):620-622. 11

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Have you felt like this query any time in your office ?

If “Yes” is your answer, then you are not alone .There was a unique  conference  that  took place  in 2010 to answer the same query in Rome , Italy on behalf of Italian cardiology society  , where this entity is researched more than any other place.Its worth going through this.

Reference

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