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Archive for the ‘Ethics in Medicine’ Category

There are about 30000 scientific journals and two million papers every year. Of which 5000 are in medicine (Ref : World university news) 

Now, take a deep breath and answer this query. What do you think is the most important aspect of any scientific or medical research in the current era ?

Final message

With due respect to all researchers, What do you think is the most important aspect of any scientific or medical research?  This query is very much relevant today. All components are equally important is an easy way out. But, that’s not the pathway that will take us to the truth.

Postamble  

Having answered the above question, no way, we can escape from this question –“Which could be the least important component “?

I guess you got it right. In the current scenario, my choice is striking and is sandwiched in the middle of the 7 responses..

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Yes, it is a triple vessel disease, with one tight lesion and at least two other significant lesions. One of them appears diffuse as well. 

Representative Image: Source courtesy DOI: 10.14740/cr548w LicenseCC BY-NC 4.0

“What to do next?. Is he symptomatic?  Yes. Definitely has significant angina” but LV function is normal.

“Ok then. If you are daring enough, ask this question”.

Which lesion is causing angina?

No easy answer at all. Try looking for some clues right from history, ECG, stress ECHO, meticulous assessment of individual lesions. Realize, even sophisticated imaging like SPECT, PET functional MR, may not help much either.

Oftentimes, we need to use the lean resources of collective common sense and clinical acumen. 

  • If it is post ACS status,  consider residual ischemia in the culprit artery is the cause for angina.
  • Second, consider the tightest lesion as angina-related.
  • Or the complex, eccentric, thrombotic lesion is responsible.
  • Next, consider LAD as default lesion as  angina related artery (Statistically right 75%, prognostically perfect decision) 
  • Watch for ECG changes during chest pain (ST depression usually don’t localize, but experience tell us V5 /V6 ST depression is more likely to be LAD ischemia )
  • Echo wall motion defect either during rest or (more usefully) in stress can really help. (It needs some effort to look for Wall motion mapping with coronary lesion subtending segment)
  • What about balloon inflation test during PTCA ? . Prompt angina when a lesion is occluded may give a direct clue.

Want to get more confused?

  • Ask your colleagues for an opinion either online or offline.
  • Do FFR/QFR/IFR  and OCT and look for intracoronary pressure-flow data and plaque burden. We are entitled to get excited about fibrous cap thickness, and hunt for vulnerable lesions and decide thereupon.  

Finally some easy options. 

Which lesion is causing angina? Never entertain that troubling question at all. (Need not  squeeze your coronary intellect you know ) 

Consider every lesion as important 

  • Get ready to stent all three or more lesions.(Many times forbidden though !)
  • (or) More convenient, refer to CABG. (Surgeons will welcome for sure )

Final message

Which lesion is causing angina? is indeed an important query one should raise. This paves way for selective focussed PCI in deserving lesions alone. However, when dealing with complex lesions subsets. the most pragmatic way as of today is to educate the patient and include them in the decision-making process (Never forget to offer medical management as a permanent option, especially if there is no critical LAD disease, and say thanks to  ISCHEMIA/COURAGE/ BARI 2D.)

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Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is being projected as a scientific God’s secret specialty. Physicians who don’t follow EBM are considered unfit non-professionals. Presumably, in pursuit of truth, all those glamorous official bodies in cardiology bring out umpteen number of protocols, guidelines, advisories, and recommendations.

The blueprint for EBM

We have the famous 3 levels of recommendation backed up by different levels of evidence. Many of us trust these as the jury’s final verdict for most illnesses in cardiology. I would like to bring one particular issue about this hugely popular model of EBM. It is about one specific class of Indication referred to as 2b. The other day, there was an intense argument for an ICD in a young HCM patient and CRT in DCM based on this 2b stuff. Kindly request all of you to pause for a moment and introspect. We can realize, class 2b plays a mischievous game in EBM with the English language “may and may not”. It tries to push subconsciously an interventional bias from equipoise, in spite of lack of good evidence and clear divergence of opinion and a possible trend towards harm.

Further, there is widespread reluctance in many cardiac workgroups to refer class 3 recommendations as an absolute (or at least relative contraindication) It was strange to note one of my colleagues argued that,  class 3 is also a fair recommendation, to accept or reject is in our domain. I was initially shocked to hear that but had to agree with him ultimately as we realized a significant chunk of interventions we do, like delayed PCI > 24 hrs, CTOs, and chronic stable belongs to the proud class 3 recommendation. The debate came to a funny end when a senior cardiologist confessed somehow class 3 seemed to be a lesser evil than even class 2B.

Final message

For the sake of our patients, we need to bring an urgent reform in the EBM. Let us merge class 2b with class 3 and put it in a single basket and keep it out of reach to all tempting stakeholders. We shall display only class 1 in our therapeutic showcase.

Counterpoint

(*Dynamic recommendations is the norm in science, as we accumulate evidence with time.. Agreed, let us do this silently in research labs. Don’t bring it to practical guidelines. No, can’t agree. Freedom to indulge with an experimental modality in a no-option patient must always be there as we are able to give the benefit of doubt to these helpless patients. This is a valid argument but we must not forget even in dire situations  good option need not be a compulsive action, it can be in action as well)

 

 

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The Country of mine with 140 crore population, is under complete lockdown mode. We are anxiously tense in one aspect, but enjoying the free time due to the peculiar “Corona effect” on cardiac emergencies.

Unable to understand you . . . please go away

What happened to our 24/7 busy CCU ? Does it happen only in my hospital? Can’t be. Let me check it right now. I called my fellow, who has since become a leading cardiologist in the nearby town.

guidelines

I have since called many of my close contacts. In both Government and private hospitals. The pooled data were analyzed in a virtual cloud memory. I am fairly convinced, our observation was indeed true.

The following can be considered as near facts.

  • There have been at least 50% minimum dip of Overall ACS cases. It even went down to 80%reduction in a few places
  • Even UA/NSTEMI showed a significant drop.
  • There was general hesitancy to do primary PCI even if it’s technically Indicated.
  • All most all STEMI were lysed. Heparin was liberally used.
  • Many patients preferred telephonic consultations.ECGs were reported over mobile platforms
  • None of the back pains & gastric pains were admitted as atypical chest pain.
  • Most cardiologists closed down their regular OPD
  • For the first time, Govt institutions were considered worthy to refer.

Why ACS Incidence nose dived?

  1. Under recognition?
  2. Under-reported ?
  3. Low Incidence?
  4. Low rate of referral?

STEMI that goes under-recognized and unreported? The consensus was, it’s less important factor as currently, very few are unaware of the Importance of chest pain and widespread availability of emergency services 108/911

Does that mean real incidence has Indeed come down?

The global atherosclerotic burden,(the substrate for STEMI) in the society is nearly constant. Still, the incidence of ACS has declined dramatically in the lockdown period. This conveys an important message and compels a search (research)

The plaques that are waiting to rupture in the population somehow getting a reprieve. Mind you, the presence of a risky plaque in LAD alone won’t cause a STEMI. It needs a trigger. The day to day physical stress, spikes of catecholamine, emotional swings, traffic pollution etc. The only plausible explanation appears to be the vulnerable patients along with their plaques are also locked up inside its Intimo-medial home. (Armchairs and bed rests can not only treat STEMI , they can prevent it too !)

Why the incidence of NSTEMI /UA has also come down?

Again, the same factors might operate. But, more likely self-stabilizing pseudo / Low-risk ACS is a distinct possibility.

A significant chunk of UA /?CSA/suspected NSTEMI patients come from referrals by GPs.The biggest pool of cases for cath labs comes from this group of noncardiac/Atypical chest pain syndromes*. Which shows some Incidental (In)significant lesions that subsequently becomes a cardiac emergency.

Since they have reduced their consultations the numbers have quite significantly reduced.

*Chronic CAD masquerading as ACS is not a forbidden concept

Final message

We are taught some important lifetime lessons in cardiac practice by this 20 nm, lifeless RNA particles.

1. The bulk of the ACS in the society is triggered by the day to day stress of the fast and furious “Just do it” world. The mitigating effect of social lockdown on physical and emotional stress on plaque dynamics on the incidence of ACS will be a big research subject in the coming months.

2. More importantly, It has exposed the existence of one more hidden epidemic in the community “manufactured coronary emergencies” propagated by a resistant cardio tropic virus that has disseminated deep into evidence-based cardiology. Let us cleanse this virus too after finishing off the Corona.

Postamble

It’s just a crazy opinion from a scribbling, blogger. However, I am sure, It’s only a matter of time, great journals like NEJM, JAMA, and Lancet will be screaming the same truths in a more palatable evidence-based manner.

Meanwhile, I can see early signs of restlessness(withdrawal) among us waiting for early release from the lock-up and resume the customary mode of evidence-based cardiology practice.

As I complete this write up . . . .surprised to find this report from TCT MD. Similarities if found, could only be coincidental.

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GettyImages-865142952-5b5eef884cedfd0050112fa6

Charles river esplanade ,Boston* : A healthy middle-aged man who was jogging quietly, while his heart was under intense scrutiny by the bionic eyes of Apple i-watch’s smart patch electrode. Suddenly, it detected some bizarre ST segment fragmentation (Seems it can predict in advance , Ischemic signals 10 minutes prior to onset of ACS ) The built-in cosmos direct GPS instantly alerted & summoned a titanium powered Space X drone that pulled the patient from the riverside to the nearest human wellness port .

EHANG 184

It dropped him through a remotely accessed split glass roof right inside the hybrid heart lab, to find , men and women chatting with flattish Artificial intelligence panels who readily allowed the robotic arms to hug the patient which engaged the coronary artery pushing radiation free magnetic gas found nothing inside and what would become a perfectly normal human coronary artery .

An amused resident robot gently plucked the patient from the cath table with sheepish laughter and called for another drone to drop the patient exactly in the same place from where he was picked up.The healthy hearted patient thanked the doctors profusely and continued his routine evening jog across the Charles of course with a 16-minute delay!

Next day . . .

Event auditing firm medi-logic mind congratulated the entire cardiac team and its digital health hub for the quality of the network and completing this daring coronary rescue mission in 16 minutes. While the drone to hospital roof time was 3 minutes, the coronary artery visualisation time was perfect.The auditing team had a special mention about the astonishing capability of Apple time watch algorithm that made sure that the patient’s evening routine was unaffected in spite of this life-threatening non cardiac pseudo-emergency. The crowning glory was, the entire expenses amounting to 250000 dollors (after a special money back discount coupon for the first false alarm) were taken care by the patient’s virtual insurance blockchain payment gateway.

*You have just read the news that wasn’t – January 2030 AD

Now, back to reality,

Stumbled on this news clip from pages of Times of India, (20-6-2019) months after I wrote the above piece. I wondered the chase between fact and fiction is becoming  really a close race.

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One big hypertension trial called SPRINT was published in 2015, has caused major delayed aftershocks in the hypertensive world now in 2017.

The new guidelines by 2017  AHA/ACC is based primarily on SPRINT data which in my opinion has so much flaws it shouldn’t have been accepted for publication in the first place. !(Intentions and Aim of a study can never be questioned even by most prestigious journals you know !)

  • The flaws begin right  from study design itself. Why diabetic population was excluded from the SPRINT trial is not clearly answered in the true interest of public.The Ironical argument is diabetic patients had no benefit with intensive BP management in ACCORD study. So why waste another study ! Funny is in’t? 
  • When CVD risk profile is intimately linked with these two major entities (DM/HT) it defies sense to  exclude  one them from the study, which is going to assess population based total  CVD risk reduction.
  • Another dramatic confounder is , 90% of SPRINT patients were taking baseline anti HT drugs. So, the original pressure of these people (No,they are patients really !) should have been high . (If you apply this logic , SPRINT study conclusions will not apply for general population who are healthy and free from drug intake! )
  • SPRINT trial also concluded there is little benefit in acute MI and renal protection. The main benefit that tilted in favor of SPRINT was preventing episodes of cardiac failure which was defined by the primitive , subjective , ever unreliable symptomatology of exertional dyspnea.

The ultimate spoiler in SPRINT 

The modality of BP measurement in SPRINT trial can be  termed as as single fit case for rejecting the study in the world hemodynamic court !

We know BP is a continuous variable, between machines , timing of measurement, persons who measure , hand to hand , beat to beat variation etc etc. The SPRINT BP data was accrued  high-profile “Research standard BP” measured by oscillometry method. Please hold your breath , . . these  machines never measure either systolic or diastolic BP.It detects the peak oscillations from brachial artery when the cuff is deflated and ask the vendor dependent fuzzy logic  algorithm to do a guess work of  SBP and DBP , which  proudly flashes them in various LED colors.

The jury is still out whether the methodology is validated or not. SPRINT data should be thoroughly sanitized with a true clinic BP which would  virtually  mean , recall of this (de) famed study !

Final message

How can such a flawed study be taken as reference for  creating major revision of  Hypertension guidelines? 

This question is to be asked in chorus by all respectable physicians and cardiologists.The World health organisation -WHO , custodian of  human health and the silent watch “puppy” has more work to do ! . . please WHO , wake up and bark !

Reference 

1.A Randomized Trial of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control The SPRINT Research Group  N Engl J Med 2015; 373:2103-2116 

2.http://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2015/12/01/10/04/the-sprint-trial-cons

3.http://www.cardiobrief.org/2017/02/08/new-questions-raised-about-sprint/

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Hippocrates is bestowed with the Immortal  tag “Father of Medicine”, not because he invented  any miraculous gene therapy or a modern virtual imaging of human organs, nor did he found any magic drugs .He didn’t receive a single award  even from his local village, forget about any Nobel prize to him !

hippocrates

Mind you , he lived before Christ ,2ooo years ago , there was nothing in the hands of noble professionals, not even a piece of paper and pencil to note down patient’s symptom .They didn’t even know what organs human body contained no basic medical tests . They just had a pair of hand, working brain with six senses , strong will to work hard and most importantly a caring mind and a constant search for answers to lingering scientific queries .

good medical practice hippocrates medical oath ethics drsvenkatesan dr s venkatesan

Yes, Hippocrates is still holding the post of father of medicine because he was the first human  to propagate  thought that human diseases are not evil forces beyond our control, it may have scientific basis , every disease has a specific cause that arise from derangement of body function.

More important than this , he formulated a way to practice this profession in a dignified manner. He also predicted common sense may prevail over science  in innumerable instances. Going through his quotes , one could wonder , he probably predicted technology might hijack human Intellect as well !

hippocrates quotesQuotation-Hippocrates-disease-Meetville-Quotes-149262Now,we have every thing. Students read medicine  in animated 3D class rooms , physicians  get a deluge of body system data &  images beamed straight into their ipad . One can perform  complex interventions with ease in almost every  organ or  even replace it , if it doesn’t work .

Still , as on 2017  ,there is something huge , that is missing  in the Noble profession when compared to ancient days  (2 millenniums before!) when people thronged Hippocrates  clinic in the remote Koss Island of Greece, where he used to sit  with almost  nothing , but was able to offer definite cure for many .

What is that missing link  ? Without realizing  what it is, we enter the Noble profession and fervently  take the  customary Hipocratic oath . For many (or most ?)  of us it is amusing to read and practice that. Life has moved in  fast lane since then. It is a tragic truth , Hippocratic oath  have become  redundant , obsolete .or outright humiliating for few !

Final message 

Whatever you say, still Iam compelled to feel sorry for that “Good old man” who miscalculated the Integrity modern day Noble professional , (I would say, Mr H failed to  realise doctors are also made from ordinary human beings ! )

It’s ok . . . here is a “Doctor’s life maintenance” manual : Keep reading it periodically !

British General medial council , has done a wonderful job . It has published a practical life maintenance and behavioral guide for  doctors  which I feel is most important text to be read periodically and of course  followed  !

Link to Good medical practice

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BMS, the original stent technology with meticulous metallurgy and design has been silently replaced by the drug eluting stent (DES) for over a decade. DES was introduced to bail out BMS from perceived high rates of  restenosis . It was a fundamental flaw, we failed to give due  weightage to the multiple variables like  operator expertise, lesion morphology, patient factors that determined the restenosis  rate .

There was never a single study done in large scale that compared a well deployed BMS with a poorly deployed BMS/ DES in terms of restenosis rate.This would have clearly quantified the technical component in the  restenosis rate that brought  pseduo -bad name for BMS in early days.

Without applying mind, wrong questions were asked and tested. No body could refute a “novel concept” , when some big names in industry  suggested  we must involve an anti cancer drug to prevent cell growth and neo-vascularisation  and hence restenosis. But , in reality  the technology of DES essentially complicated the metal behavior by adding a drug and drug adhesive agent(Polymer)  to the otherwise inert metal. Further , the , metallurgy  engineers had to restart / reduplicate from the scratch since we had  already well developed stent technology for BMS . The manipulation was  to add a drug to the metal.

The  irony of DES lies in the fact it Intentionally allowed to interfere /damage the endothelial healing and make the extended anti-platelet mandatory.  Still , DES was able to rule the world backed up by hyped data  with   bloated  reduction in restenosis rate. (Now we realise  the true benefits of DES  are nil  or at best marginal or even harmful in certain subsets of ACS .Read NORSTENT Trial linked below  )

Yes DES has a concern , but its not the drug you know !, 

Off late , since the polymer was  assumed as  culprit, variety of new generation stents with disposable /Non durable /Zero poylmer were developed. Still, polymer could not be proven as true culprit , some have started blaming  the drug again. Recently, It led to one famed DES based on Paclitaxel (which has a pride of place in the Land mark SYNTAX  study ) exited the human domain  with disgrace . (I wonder can  we conclude then SYNTAX study is also become invalid !)

This study done with over 9000 patients  concluded  like this  . . .

The DES industry was (is) so powerful it could easily shrug  the challenge of truth that came out briefly  in early 2000s when DES got hit with increased  acute complications.

Now, in 2016 NORSTENT study again showed us BMS is as good as DES in all walks of CAD.  Let us see what happens , still  its very unlikely mature cardiologists do not trust BMS.

*I have a belief  (Paranoid or not time will tell !) one of the reasons  DES are strongly promoted  is to sustain DAPT market alive and kicking for a long haul !

Scenerio  in India is frightening.

While the developed countries have DES usage rate around 65 % , India leads the world with DES constituting 95% (NIC registry 2017) of all deployed stents.What a way for a poor country  to  tackle CAD , which doesn’t even have prompt prehospital Aspirin for  bulk of their ACS patients, ready to waste  its resources in DES.

India , a country Infested with an unregulated health industry  became the perfect battle  ground for abusing the stents. With direct collusion with the large hospital managements the issue got exploded recently  .The Govt was compelled to come out with urgent restrictions and price control  in the use of stents.

Funny world this. World’s richest economies  are worried about the cost and want to phase out inappropriate therapy whenever possible, its absolute arrogance most of us feel shamed to keep BMS in their cathlab.

Final message

A  good metal based flexible ,trackable , thin struted  BMS should be the default choice for coronary stenting .( We used have one , now it vanished !)It avoids unnecessary prolonged DAPT .Most importantly one BMS costs 25 % of the cost of DES   . . . think of 4 critical proximal LAD lesions of a poor man can be fixed at the cost of one DES , that’s  definite way forward. Govt of India can pass another regulation in this regard. If you think  NORSTENT is NONSENSE  let us atleaset  insist for a large scale Indian  study for BMS /DES and  Cardiological society of India has much work to do !

Future for BMS  . . . looks bright !

While the  superiority  of DES is being increasingly questioned , the concept of surface modified BMS is being tested .This I believe is a face saving way to bring back the BMS in lieu of DES. There is a distinct  possibility of many of the new generation  DES going the BVS way in the near future.

Reference 

1.Hassan AK1, Bergheanu SC, Stijnen T, van der Hoeven .J Late stent malapposition risk is higher after drug-eluting stent compared with bare-metal stent implantation and associates with late stent thrombosis.Eur Heart 2010 May;31(10):1172-80. 

2.Zhang K1, Liu T, Li JA, Chen JY, Wang J,   Surface modification of implanted cardiovascular metal stents: from antithrombosis and antirestenosis to endothelialization.J Biomed Mater Res A. 2014 Feb;102(2):588-609.

3. https://www.pcronline.com/eurointervention/114th_issue/volume-12/number-17/350/ultra-hydrophilic-stent-platforms-promote-early-vascular-healing-and-minimise-late-tissue-response-a-potential-alternative-to-second-generation-drug-eluting-stents.

4.Drug-Eluting or Bare-Metal Stents for Coronary Artery Disease NORSTENT Investigators N Engl J Med 2016; 375:1242-1252

Post-ample : Only For non believers  ( who think this article is near rubbish ) 

I am  very much  convinced DES should be superior  for the simple reason it elutes a drug and the whole world believes it works !

Do you know, what these drugs do, and what they are expected to do ! In this elegant study  by Hassan AKEur Heart J. 2010 May;31(10):1172-80.  Its proven with IVUS , DES is many fold likely to cause late stent apposition than BMS.( Thus carrying the risk long term )  Reason is simple , patchy and incomplete endothelisation on the luminal side and pathological metal vessel wall interface  in abluminal promoting late mal-apposition.

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PCI and coronary stents are revolutionary concepts , still , they may not be great life saving devices . . . though the collective cardiology wisdom may seem to suggest so !

stents-india
The ideal way to describe a stent could be “Its a metal coil , if inserted properly in certain population of severely obstructive forms coronary artery disease may save some lives in acute situations or give relief to pain in non acute situations”
*While the true benefits for the patient population is unsure . . . it’s absolutely certain stents confer highest quality of life to the manufacturers and their chain of associates including the Noble professionals !

sir-william-osler

I wonder , what would be his comment about ubiquitous stents that rule the current era !

Learnt cardiologist’s will know the true life saving potential of these stents (In the way its been currently used ) Their conscience will also tell how Inappropriate and Indiscriminate usage of stents has possibly injured or consumed more human lives , that may even beat the number of lives saved .(Oh, Its a wild, rude statement friend!)

I sincerely believe the move by Government of India to control the stent price ( to enable all our countrymen to get it) . . . as if “stents are the only staple diet” for heart patients is ill-founded and dangerous .

What the Government may not be aware of is . . .This 45000 crore omnipresent stent industry is playing havoc in the life of patients not only financially but also biologically to harm their blood vessels.

It is near foolish to tackle the scourge of human beings -Atherosclerosis, a diffuse medical disease with a lesion specific intervention .This is especially true when we want to tackle it in population based approach . Yes, some super rich and elite get sophisticated stents thinking that they are privileged .Please understand rich tend to suffer more with technology. Often times non affordability is also a bliss for the poor .(You can’t write any rubbish man !)

Who will tell this to our policy makers ?

Never ape the private sector health care , states must have different priorities.There are Infinite number of studies that very clearly reveal medical management and life style modification is the sure and successful way to tackle CAD.(I think I need not dwell into this as evidence is explicit .)

Meanwhile, let me give one example of the futility of innovation and perils of premature release of half baked science .While one section of Industry is coming out with stents made up of exotic new metals , simultaneously other group is innovating and experimenting the exactly opposite , how to get rid of the metal ie bioreabsorable stents. Mind you, one of the latest generation stents was severely reprimanded in a Landmark trial ABSORB 2 and 3. Its a comical irony some of the hospitals and cardiologists feel bad to miss this red flagged stent that are taken out of their cath lab because of price cap. ( A pat for the Govt for this !)

Its a multi billion dollar Industry (Note : there is no pardon for Indian companies to exploit either !) trying to disseminate a commercially motivated concept intelligently including the stake holder Government in their loop. The move to liberalise stent usage is most unfortunate thing as the Govt has inadvertently increased the risk of abuse .Let the new age Indian not be proud about “Stent for all ” movement since the Govt will ultimately have to shell out for this imperfect therapeutics through public insurance .

Final message

Though capping the price of the stent by Government do carry some sense . . . ultimately I feel its a trap . It’s akin to let loose a dubious modality in public domain within easy reach . Already the companies want to increase per capita metal consumption. That process will only get accelerated now.In a country where bulk of the ACS patients not even get prehospital Aspirin, we talk about primary PCI for all.It is a shocking medical economic hijack played in day light by a new generation thrombolytic called TNK -TPA is able to jack up the cost of coronary care with marginal benefits based on dubious off shore studies. I guess , very shortly the thrombolytic warrior Streptokinase is likely to be declared as endangered species and perilious for STEMI patients.If Govt really wants to tackle population based emergency cardiac care they should first upgrade country wide taluk or municipal level hospital with 24 h coronary care facility with trained doctors who can save more lives than the combined efforts of socially concerned corporate care takers.

Some one should tell the Govt, cath labs would never come into the scheme of things for mangaing ACS in bulk of our country men.The Law makers and the corridors of power should be “forced to realise” there is an urgent & broader issue to be addressed.Its not only in cardiology but in all walks of health delivery system. How to prevent “contamination of medical science by pseudo cost effective scientific interventions fueled by corporate greed ? They should start sensitizing the young medical professionals in medical schools that will help the Noble profession remain Noble !

Postamble

Its heartening to note Govt of India is Indeed taking some harsh steps to make drugs and devices affordable in a fair manner .The new authority National pharmaceutical pricing authority (http://nppaindia.nic.in/ ) has clear targets and are in hot pursuit towards righteousness in health care. Still, they have to be very watchful and work in tandem with medical council of India since commerce masquerades as science , price control alone is not a solution and there needs to be body regulating the true Indications as well .

Visit the site for more Info

http://nppaindia.nic.in/

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