Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘Cardiology -Definitions’ Category

Yes, it is a triple vessel disease, with one tight lesion and at least two other significant lesions. One of them appears diffuse as well. 

Representative Image: Source courtesy DOI: 10.14740/cr548w LicenseCC BY-NC 4.0

“What to do next?. Is he symptomatic?  Yes. Definitely has significant angina” but LV function is normal.

“Ok then. If you are daring enough, ask this question”.

Which lesion is causing angina?

No easy answer at all. Try looking for some clues right from history, ECG, stress ECHO, meticulous assessment of individual lesions. Realize, even sophisticated imaging like SPECT, PET functional MR, may not help much either.

Oftentimes, we need to use the lean resources of collective common sense and clinical acumen. 

  • If it is post ACS status,  consider residual ischemia in the culprit artery is the cause for angina.
  • Second, consider the tightest lesion as angina-related.
  • Or the complex, eccentric, thrombotic lesion is responsible.
  • Next, consider LAD as default lesion as  angina related artery (Statistically right 75%, prognostically perfect decision) 
  • Watch for ECG changes during chest pain (ST depression usually don’t localize, but experience tell us V5 /V6 ST depression is more likely to be LAD ischemia )
  • Echo wall motion defect either during rest or (more usefully) in stress can really help. (It needs some effort to look for Wall motion mapping with coronary lesion subtending segment)
  • What about balloon inflation test during PTCA ? . Prompt angina when a lesion is occluded may give a direct clue.

Want to get more confused?

  • Ask your colleagues for an opinion either online or offline.
  • Do FFR/QFR/IFR  and OCT and look for intracoronary pressure-flow data and plaque burden. We are entitled to get excited about fibrous cap thickness, and hunt for vulnerable lesions and decide thereupon.  

Finally some easy options. 

Which lesion is causing angina? Never entertain that troubling question at all. (Need not  squeeze your coronary intellect you know ) 

Consider every lesion as important 

  • Get ready to stent all three or more lesions.(Many times forbidden though !)
  • (or) More convenient, refer to CABG. (Surgeons will welcome for sure )

Final message

Which lesion is causing angina? is indeed an important query one should raise. This paves way for selective focussed PCI in deserving lesions alone. However, when dealing with complex lesions subsets. the most pragmatic way as of today is to educate the patient and include them in the decision-making process (Never forget to offer medical management as a permanent option, especially if there is no critical LAD disease, and say thanks to  ISCHEMIA/COURAGE/ BARI 2D.)

Read Full Post »

Syncope is one of the common, yet difficult symptoms to evaluate especially in the elderly. Post-prandial syncope is one condition likely to be missed out.As the name suggests It has a distinct relationship with food intake. Mild fall in postprandial BP is an expected response but if it exceeds a  limit* syncope is triggered. (*Highly variable)

Hemodynamics of Postprandial state

  1. Normally splanchnic circulation demands up to a 25%  increase in blood volume after a moderately large meal. 
  2. When this happens there must be compensatory vasoconstriction elsewhere especially in muscles. Lack of this response results in inappropriate falls in SVR. (The second mechanism is more constant and can be disproportionate to fall of BP)
  3. The mediators for this are either neurogenic or hormonal or both.
  4. Gastrointestinal mediator (Vasoactive Intestinal polypeptide dysregulation) is thought to play a major role. 

From Jansen et al  Archives of Internal medicine 1995

When does it occur?

It can manifest as early as 15 minutes, up to 2 hrs. The fall in systolic  BP is around 20mmhg. More common with large, hot meals. The fact that it can occur up to 2 hrs post meals, there is a likelyhood we might overlook it in history.

Other differential diagnoses 

Management 

There is no specific therapy. Some of the following might be effective.

  • Caffeine,
  • Somatostatin,
  • Acarbose,( α-Glucosidase Inhibitor ) 
  • Avoiding acute high carbohydrate intake.
  • A psychogenic component can be noted in a few that is attenuated by cognitive-behavioral therapy.
  • Midoridine, an Alpha¹ receptor stimulant  can be surprisingly more effective in some who have overlap with orthostatic hypo  (Cleve Clin J Med. 2010 May; 77(5): 298–306.)

Final message

Postprandial hypotension/syncope is a less recognized entity. As always, history is the most important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of syncope, which comes free of cost as well. The diagnostic yield is much greater than sophisticated Holter and event monitors.

Please note, there is a much more prevalent, lesser version of this condition, ie postprandial dizziness or giddiness. However, as already stated there is a significant overlap between orthostatic hypotension and postprandial syncope. It’s worth ruling out diabetes and autonomic dysfunction, (even subclinical Parkinsons) in elders with such symptoms. 

Reference

Here is a  comprehensive and elegant study (I think, It is only one of that kind on this topic )

1.Jansen RWMM, Connelly CM, Kelley-Gagnon MM, Parker JA, Lipsitz LA. Postprandial Hypotension in Elderly Patients With Unexplained Syncope. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(9):945–952.

Postprandial hypotension Jansen1995

 

 

 

 

 

Read Full Post »

Junctional tachycardia(JT) is often a misunderstood arrhythmia. Technically,  any tachycardia arising from the AV junction could be termed as JT.Even AVNRT was considered as a form of Junctional tachycardia till recently.The crux of the issue is , true anatomical extent and borders of  so called AV junction is  yet to be clearly demarcated .The common perception that  AV node is a discrete  structure is  an anatomical illusion  , rather its collection of  condensed fibers with proximal  nodal approach and distal fanning .

Now , we have a  proper definition by the apex scientific bodies  ACC/AHA/HRS 2015)

definition of junctional tachycardia

Source :2015 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the management of adult patients with supraventricular tachycardia: Executive summary A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society April 2016Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages e92–e135

Please note :The key point is , JT by definition  should  be a focal  /automatic tachycardia either due to triggered activity or after depolarisation and the boundaries of  junctional tissue is liberally extended up to  His bundle.

Read  related post  :What does the term junctional tachycardia mean in current era?

Reference

http://www.heartrhythmjournal.com/article/S1547-5271%2815%2901188-1/pdf

 

Read Full Post »