Posts Tagged ‘doppler in vsd’

I know ,there is a VSD out there !  but I am  unable to  get the gradient across it.This situation can be quiet  common .The reasons could  be technical, anatomical or  hemodynamic.

As a rule ,  if we hear  a  pan-systolic murmur clinically ,   one must be able to catch  a good  Doppler spectrum somewhere by  echocardiography . However , If  the murmur is restricted to  early or mid to late  systole, VSD  jet is often attenuated in echocardiography .

In the  following situations ,  VSD  jets  may not  record a distinctive Doppler spectra. Invariably the velocity is low , spectrum is short,  less intense ,  lacks good shape and borders are hazy !

  • A closing  VSD
  • A Small muscular VSD
  • VSD with  Severe pulmonary hypertension
  • VSDs with muscle bundle criss crossing
  • Double chambered right ventricle (DCRV, where VSD usually drains to high pressure chamber.)
  • VSD  associated RVOT obsruction  (Note: classical TOF VSD will never generate a murmur)
  • VSD with sinus of valsalva aneurusms (  Doppler  jet  can be really  difficult to record )
  • Inlet VSDs are missed because  convectional  views of echo are perpendicular to these inlet jets.(Short axis better  )
  • Another common situation  is post STEMI VSR.Both a small apical VSD or multi tract  VSD associated with  infero posterior  STEMI   gradients are  difficult to obtain.

What is   inference ?

Doppler spectrum will help detect  small VSDs and color doppler will not miss even a tiny VSD.Doppler spectrum across VSD  is dependent many  factors other than the presence of VSD. However some large VSDs are detected better by 2D echo rather than doppler signals.

Final message

Presence of a Anatomical  VSD does not  imply it should generate a noise.The murmur as well as Doppler signals  are  primarily  determined by the pressure difference on either side of VSD. After all , one of the  largest VSD  that  we encounter

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