That’s normal . . . what happens during pathological states ?
There are important diseases that restricts entry of blood into right heart chambers. They can occur either in an acute (Tamponade) or in chronic fashion like constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy.These entities show distinctive impact on JVP and systemic pulse.
The two pathognomonic signs are Kussmaul sign and pulsus paradoxus* that go hand in hand in most situations.Inappropriate elevation of JVP with inspiration is termed as Kussmaul sign , while exaggerated fall in systemic BP with inspiration is called Pulsus paradoxus.The later is the arterial counter part of Kussmaul sign in JVP .However, there can be dissociation between these two signs occasionally.
* Pulsus paradoxus is a term originally used by Kussmaul when he noted heart sounds were retained while pulse dissappeared in patients with cardiac tamponade .Later we realised the loss of pulse was linked to inspiratory cycle of respiration. To make this sign objective sphygmomanometery criteria was formulated which measured the difference between inspiratory and expiratory korotkoff’s sounds .
Coming up next
Why Kussmaul sign is often absent in Tamponade while its arterial counterpart pulsus paradoxus may still be conspicuous ?