Posts Tagged ‘diamond forrester’

We owe a lot to our past genius minds for our current understanding of  cardiology.Youngsters   should  know how the filed of cardiology  evolved .Few  great  brains  taught us how to think   hemodynamically  in the setting of  STEMI.

The Diamond and Forrester classification is  an  undisputed achievement of  modern cardiac  hemodynamics.They gently converted the  clinical classification of  Killip into more scientific  hemodynamic  one .Both these classification continue to fascinate  us even in the era of instant PCI for STEMI .

And youngsters  should read this again and again and critically evaluate their patients  within this system.The two key parameters he used was PCWP of  18mmhg /And cardiac Index 2.2liters . He also suggested a simplified version where  intra- arterial monitoring is not feasible.  The   cardiac Index could be replaced by systemic blood pressure  lung congestion   represents PCWP >18mmhg .

The DF classification would become

An important inference from DF classification !

The class 3  of   DF   grading  has no pulmonary congestion  but persistent hypotension . What does it mean ?

It is a stunning proof of a great concept.  As the patient moves (Worsens)  from  DF  two  to   DF three  , the lung congestion tends  to regress . This sub-set  actually  means   development of  bi-ventricular failure or isolated RV failure  . This is an ominous sign and indicate a bad prognosis . ( One may call it a paradox  , according to conventional thinking   “The more the lung crackles  , dismal  is the outcome”   DF  grading clearly proves this is  not  always true ,  as long as  the systemic pressure is maintained  crackles can be managed effectively  . In  DF 3  the right ventricle  as a pump is  becoming so weak it is not able to congest the lungs  at the same  process leads to  systemic hypotension.

James Forrester


Forrester is also a pioneer in how we evaluate chest pain in the emergency rooms and cardiology OPDs .  His thoughts on utilization of Besean theorem revolutionized   the interpretation of exercise stress testing.

* Killip is a genius of different caliber would be discussed later .


Forrester, J, Diamond, G, Chatterjie, K, et al Medical therapy of acute myocardial infarction by application of hemodynamic subsets (first of two parts). N Engl J Med 1976;295,1356-1362

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