Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Posts Tagged ‘normal rv dimension’

It sounds  to be a  simple question . But, cardiology literature is sparse  on the subject.

RV mimics a three dimensional triangular chamber .The inflow, body and outflow align themselves in complex planes .This makes measurement difficult.

What  are the measurements to be made  ?

  • RV inflow tract (RVIT)
  • RV body
  • RV outflow tract (RVOT)
  • RV Free wall thickness

How to measure RV size ?

  • Inflow diameter is assessed in inflow view ( Para sternal long axis,probe  tilted down towards lower  sternal edge (cool . . .That is were tricuspid valve is located !)
  • RV body can be assessed in long axis or 4 chamber view
  • RVOT in short axis view.

What is the normal range ?

RV Body

< 3 cm in parasternal long axis view

<8 cm Long axis ( RV apex to mid point of TV )

RV inflow(RVOT)

<  3- 4cm

RV outflow (RVOT)

1.8 to 3 cm

Note :

  • All measurements are taken in end diastole .
  • The largest diameter of RV is at its inflow(it is roughly equivalent to tricuspid annulus)
  • RVOT size can vary  , generally tapers as it reaches near the pulmonary valve .

How common is the  differential RV enlargement*?

The complex shape and architecture of RV  make  the  direction , sequence  and magnitude of  RV enlargement less predictable .

  • Diastolic loading of RV generally have more uniform enlargement of RV .(Inflow, body, outflow )
  • In dilated cardiomyopathy RV enlargement  common in short axis > long axis
  • Pressure over  loading may not result in uniform enlargement as the pressure points on RV surface is not homogeneous.
  • In congenital heart disease , RV shape and size  depend more on the morphology(location of VSD, infundibular  anatomy, muscle bundles, extent of trabeculations etc)
  • In arrhythmogenic  RV dysplasia (ARVD) outflow  tract enlargement is more dominant.

* The fact that ,  RV can enlarge  in focal and localised manner make it mandatory to measure RV dimension in multiple views and in all possible diameters.

At what  pressure RV begins to enlarge ?

RV is believed to enlarge at > 60mmhg .Hypertrophy is usually precedes dilatation  .

At what volume overload RV begins to enlarge ?

Our experience with ASD indicate when the pulmonary  blood flow  is twice that of systemic blood flow RV is distinctly enlarged. May be it begins to enlarge at>  1.5: 1 shunt

RV begins to enlarge horizontally or longitudinally ?

this aspect is not studied much.  Generally volume overload causes more uniform enlargement.

How does acute RV enlargement differ from chronic RV enlargement ?

Dilatation is more conspicuous in acute RVE ( Pulmonary embolism, RV infarct ) associated wall motion defects and thinning favors acute RVE.

Normal or increased thickness is expected in chronic RV enlargement

Here is a  five-star rated  article on RV dimension

Published in 1986 , still considered a  land mark paper  . . .

Read Full Post »