Posts Tagged ‘structural defects in brugada’

Ever since Brugada found the unique pattern of ECG on right pre- cardial leads and its  association with  premature electrical death ,cardiac electro-physiology got a new impetus. Hundreds of articles(May be thousands !) on Brugada are  available . Many criterias  were proposed.  Brugada  and his colleagues should be credited for bringing  in such an interest in the  field of inherited ventricular arrhythmias.

On the down side ,  as we have a habit of  prematurely formulating criterias  ,  it brings  an artificial academic  barrier  Funnily , in medical  science  deviating   from a criteria (However hastily it  was  proposed  )   is a considered  big  offense Further . the hype surrounding  any new scientific  entity makes it difficult  for others  to overwrite  it .

Brugada recognized a ECG pattern with  a genetic predisposition for VT and VF  . Now , we know there are many etiologies  with a similar pattern  of ECG . What Brugada did was ,  he  exposed the tip of Iceberg called inherited ventricular arrhythmia . But the essential criteria –  Absence of structural heart disease ,  to diagnose Brugada   was  always questionable.

(Please realize , presence  or  absence of structural  heart disease depends , more  on  how advanced  our  imaging modalities are . If you can map a virtual histology of RV epicardium one may detect some  microscopic abnormality in every case of Brugada. In human biological system , God  usually bonds  structure and function too  closely  and hence  functional  abnormality rarely occur  in isolation )

Brugada is  not  a new disease ,   it is  a  recognition  of a  pattern of ECG  related  to sudden deaths . Subsequently , we  realized any dispersion in repolarisation in RV epicardial surface  , the   risk of sudden death  is increased. From the days of  Brugada  we  have  come  a long way.

What is new in Brugada syndrome  ?

(Not exactly new . . .  it is  known  for many years )

Brugada is no more an exclusive  functional disorder of  sodium channels of RV  epicardium .It can have structural defect (known & unknown ) .It may  have infective , degenerative etiology as well .

How does these structural changes appear ?

Chronic sodium channel malfunction  can result in cell membrane defects which can augment   Idio-osmole   inside  the cell and result in  apoptosis   etc .

Which comes first ,  electrical or structural abnormality ?

It is an  another  chicken- egg tale  waiting to be decoded   within the RV epicardial cells

Can wall motion defect occur in Brugada ?

Early observations done in out hospital (MMC Chennai ) has found anterior  RV free wall motion defects. Tissue Doppler studies are  being undertaken.

Final Message

The  following paper  wonderfully documents  the structural and histo-pathological  changes in RV epicardium .  This  implies ,  our belief   about this  unique electrical  disorder  is  bound to take a beating  and  we  expect a major perception makeover regarding Brugada  in the years to come .

Probably the most important paper on Brugada syndrome was published in circulation in 2005


Read Full Post »