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Posts Tagged ‘axial geographic miss’

A stent missing a  lesion after a PCI  is referred to as geographical miss.

It can be metal missing a lesion ( in BMS )or a drug missing a lesion  with DES.

Geographical miss is  obviously  more important with DES ,   as both metal and drug can miss a lesion ! (A double miss !)

Read a related article in this site. Geographical Miss : Difficult coronary Runways . . .

What are the types of  geographical miss ?

A.Longitudinal

B.Axial

Longitudinal miss is more of a technical failure (Interventionist error ) While  axial miss  is  often a  design or concept failure .

Longitudinal  miss results in edge lesions ( either  stent inflow or outflow lesions) .Axial miss result in discreet  in-stent lesions .

Please remember ,  axial GM  is  much more common .

What is definition of  axial geographical miss ?

Inadequate inhibition of intimal hyperplasia within the region of stent .

Mechanisms of  geographic miss in DES era

  1. Stent  vessel diameter mismatch  (Less drug vessel contact)
  2. Low drug dose -Pharmacological error
  3. Stent radial strength more than the desired force per unit area . This excess  stress  effect  might interfere with drug release.
  4. Some degree of vessel injury is needed for drugs to percolate. (A very smooth deployment may not release the drug  properly )*

*A modern day cardiologist  is expected not only to deploy the stent properly , he has to make sure drugs reach the target cells . What an  irony  cardiology can be  .  . . a  too gentle  PCI  can show up a  negative face ! when we want to poison selectively  the atherosclerotic plaques .

What is the incidence of GM ?

In  STLLR trial which looked specifically the issue of GM  the incidence was very high ,  an astonishing 65 %

How to recognise it ?

Longitudinal miss can be identified by conventional angiography.

Axial miss is very difficult to diagnose . IVUS,ICT will  help.

Many times it is an after thought  when patient presents with  an event.

What can we do once we recognise it ?

Unfortunately nothing much can be done to reverse the miss especially the axial ones.

longitudinal miss can be corrected by a over lapping stent .(Still ,  we do not know the implication of double metal doses  dragging an edge of lesion !)

Can  “Geographic miss”   be termed as  a failed PCI ?

Clinically , technically , logically and morally  Yes .

But  practically  “No” ,  as GM  takes much longer time to manifest as a clinical event  ,  by then , no one   would  really attribute  the event as  procedure  related  . And of course ,  we have numerous other  excuses to convince our patients.

The link to STLLR  trial which gave us the startling data about GM .


http://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149%2808%2900350-0/abstract

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