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Posts Tagged ‘primary pci in low risk stemi’

This paper is to  be presented in the the Forth coming   Annual CSI meet New Delhi  December 2012

Beware of Primary PCI : Is there a Low risk STEMI where  pPCI is potentially contraindicated ?

Venkatesan Sangareddi  . Department of cardiology  . Madras Medical college

Primary PCI has proven to be the best  option for management of STEMI . But it need to be done early,  by an experienced team , in a good facility . It is not the individual expertise that matters !  Any treatment , which has great therapeutic potential  also  carries a hazard . So , these treatments  must be used with caution.  Not every STEMI patient , carry a high risk for death.  In fact , the mortality  in some of the subsets of STEMI  can be as low as 1%. If , a  STEMI patient , with a likely 1% mortality is going to get a procedure with  3 – 4 % ,risk it should (And Must !) raise a validity question  But,this issue is rarely addressed in the interventional summits.

In a case pool of 56  randomly collected primary PCIs from various institutes , the outcome  of pPCI  was analysed .It is a retrospective , observational study .STEMI was graded as high risk when one of the following features  were present and it was “low risk” when none of the feature  was  present ( Second STEMI , Extensive  anterior MI , Class 3 /4 killip, An episode of VT/VF, Complete heart block, Diabetic individuals )  High risk STEMI  constituted 22 patients .The overall in hospital  mortality  was (5/56) 9 % In high risk STEMI it was (2/22 )9.5 % in low risk  STEMI it was 3/34 6.4 % .In the corresponding period 40 patients with STEMI who were treated by only thrombolysis or heparin (If beyond time window ) was used a control . 15 patients  were in high risk In the this group the  mortality in high  risk STEMI  was (3/15 )19% and low risk STEMI  there was nil mortality (0/25) 0% .

There was an unacceptable moratlity  with  pPCI  in the low risk STEMI which fared worse than even simple administration of heparin.These data reveal a dangerous fact , that is , primary PCI does not differentiate in the procedural  risk with reference to the patient profile it deals with .While , it dramatically reduce the risk in high risk STEMI It confers a astonishing risk to low risk STEMI .The exact cause for this risk is not known . Common sense would tell , pPCI is  expertise driven driven while thrombolysis is not .Our analysis also suggest bulk of early hazard of pPCI is also logistics related.

Primary PCI could be  cautiously and consciously avoided  in  patients with  low risk STEMI even if it is technically and academically indicated. This can have a great impact in the overall outcome of STEMI management.It is suggested every STEMI patient need to be risk stratified on arrival.(It is still a mystery , why we do this for NSTEMI and not in STEMI ) . A change in the current PCI guidelines to this effect is to be considered.

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