Archive for the ‘Cardiology teaching websites’ Category

Check out these two posters* for are a quick reference on HOCM with current updated evidence. The first one details about  Echo evaluation. The second one illustrates the genetic screening flow chart of the HOCM families.

Some of the queries, you will find the answers from these posters are,

1. How to recognize Intrinsic mitral valve defect by MR jet morphology?

2. How to cross-check the true LVOT gradient from MR jet?

3. When to do a provocative test to document the LVOT gradient?

4. What are the standard pre-myectomy measurements by Echo?

5. How to screen a family member of HCM?  Pros and cons of  Phenotypic vs Genotyping screening 


The poster is created by: Karan Kapoor, MD; Allison G Hays, MD, FASE. Design and illustration by medmovie.com.


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The humble looking strip of ECG  recorded  in millions ,  every day across the globe  has a complex definition.

And this definition  is  the most apt I have found.

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a curve showing the potential variations against time in the whole body stemming from the heart, which is an electrochemical generator suspended in a conductive medium.

Einthoven(Dutch)  is the the man who invented the ECG  ,  got a Nobel price for not only inventing the string galvanmeter to record ECG,  but also  making us understand   the rules  of the  electrical wave front  that emanates from the heart.( Not to forget the  original concept  of who demonstrated electrical activity from heart by by capillary electrometer.  by Waller.(British). In my opinion waller should have shared the Nobel prize. I am  sure ,even Einthoven would agree to it.

Of course , do not ask  which  comes first  ” Ionic  flow” or  “the current”  that  comes with it !

Credit goes to  the creators of this  wonderful book  on medical physiology and put that free on the net . Three cheers to  them .

The book is from  University of Copenhagen  , Pannum Institute of Medical Physiology.

physiology text book paulev Zubieta sweden

British physiologist Augustus D. Waller of St Mary’s Medical School, London publishes the first human electrocardiogram. It is recorded with a capilliary electrometer from Thomas Goswell, a technician in the laboratory. Waller AD. A demonstration on man of  electromotive changes accompanying the heart’s beat. J Physiol (London) 1887;8:229-234
Willem Einthoven introduces the term ‘electrocardiogram’ at a meeting of the Dutch Medical Association. (Later he claims that Waller was first to use the term). Einthoven W: Nieuwe methoden voor clinisch onderzoek [New methods for clinical investigation]. Ned T Geneesk 29 II: 263-286, 1893

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I stumbled upon this  web   site . I think this  can be  glorified as the  standing  example  for     “Democracy  of science”

INTECH open science  open mind


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Who said  knowledge comes at a cost . Here is a great resource . Everything about 3D echo

A sample of   3D echo  evaluation of  mitral valve anatomy


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