Archive for the ‘Great websites in cardiology’ Category

Medical research   often ventures into a directionless and meaningless  exercise with or without intention .The reason is simple , unlike  other fields,  scientists enjoy  the ultimate freedom of expression.

How to find genuine treasures from this chaos ?

We need people like Valentine Fuster ,

valentine fuster global cardiology what is the future

Here is link to the article in   circulation 2011  which I consider a must read for all cardiologists !

global  cardiovascular health valentine fuster circulation 2011

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I stumbled upon this  web   site . I think this  can be  glorified as the  standing  example  for     “Democracy  of science”

INTECH open science  open mind


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In the early  20th century , Waller invented the ECG machine. Wilson  created  leads and  methods to record it. Eienthoven  formulated the concepts the electrical theory behind ECG.

Between 1940-197os one man ruled supreme in the world of electro cardiography .   He is Dr Sodi pallares from Mexico. His deep insights revolutionised  and helped  us  understand how the cardiac electricity is generated  and propagated  in various pathological states that is the beginning new age electrocardiography! It adds much to his  credit , as in those days scientists  from non American and European countries   were hard to come  in the  global limelight.

Some of his thought processes and Inventions

  • He laid the foundation  for deductive electrocardiography.
  • Applied  vectorocardiographic  principles to scalar  ECG and helped  understand mechanism of ventricular chamber enlargements
  • He was instrumental  to analyse  the genesis of current from the myocardium . He tried to reason out  the contribution  of  cell metabolism, hypoxia, electrolytes to the current genesis.
  • Polarising myocardium with GIK infusion STEMI was proposed by him
  • Finally he tried to incorporate the laws of thermodynamics into electrocardiography .

Please remember , Sodi pallare’s  conscience  is still largely unexplored .There are lots of hidden truths .We now know fever can influence qrs voltage and febrile illness can trigger  ventricular tachycardia as in  of Brugada syndromes.

Today’s youngsters can take a  few cues from this great man and enlighten the field of electro-cardiology


Demetrio Sodi Pallares (1913-2003 )

If  modern-day cardiologist is able to  interpret the  ECG by a cursory 3 second scan of  strip of waves  , we are greatly  indebted to the knowledge imbibed by this great man from Mexico !

Sodi pallares



Sodi-Pallares D,Medrano GA, Bisteni A, Ponce de Leon J:
Deductive and Poly-paramerric Elecrocardiography.Instituton acionalde
Cardiologia de Mexico, Mexico,DF1970,VII,VIII
Sodi-Pallares D, Testelli MR, Fishleder BL, Bisteni A, Medrano GA, Friendland C, De Micheli A. Effects of an intravenous infusion of a potassium-glucose-insulin solution on the electrocardiographic signs of myocardial infarction: a preliminary clinical report. Am J Cardiol. 1962;9:166–181

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Dr Shirely Smith  from charring cross hospital London  wrote this masterpiece  in BMJ in the year 1962 . He was doing a research about the origin of angina like pain in patients who had  upper GI disease or disorders of cervical spine .He found a hidden invisible neural link between heart and it’s neighboring viscera. What he  referred it as linked angina . It links the  pain from ,Esophagus,  gall bladder ,  duodenum ,  cervical spine to the  heart .

This article I  consider as one of the  all time classics in  clinical cardiology . Here is the link for linked angina (Courtesy of BMJ)

linked angina atypical angina abdominal angina  shirley smith cornelio papp 2 bmj

linked angina atypical angina abdominal angina  shirley smith cornelio papp bmj

High lights ( Inferred )  from the  article

We know angina typically occurs on exertion .If it occurs at rest we call it as unstable angina .

Can it occur at rest other than unstable angina ?

Yes it can . ( Post prandial ,Nocturnal, emotional etc)

Can the  heart be the referral site for visceral pain ?

Yes .It seems so .

Can visceral pain be trigger for  developing true angina ?

Again possible . A Patient with documented CAD  develop  a true esophageal pain it is likely  to  induce a sensation of  angina  rather than abdominal pain .Similarly , cervical pain may represent a masked angina in a patient  with active cervical spondylitis .(Homing in of angina to the nearest non cardiac culprit )


Final message

Those were the times when the brain worked more than hands . Common sense prevailed over machine sense .This article argues for a  big debate about the origin of so called atypical angina in a patient with multiple common visceral conditions.Even 50 years later we have little clue  about alimentary -cardiac neural spill over !




Today we live in a complex and confusing and commercial  medical world .We have atleast  a dozen chest  pain triaging protocols in ER . Still errors are  rampant. Errors are acceptable . . . but this one was an absolute  shocker  . . .  “I know a  patient with vague chest/epigastric  pain  , non specific T inversion ,  documented gall stones , landed in cath lab not by accident but  by meticulous planning !”

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This article   provides  you every thing  you  want to learn  about ASD device clsoure .The anatomy , the art of doing TEE in cath lab etc.Do not ever shy away from lesser known journals .It is simply amazing  to find  hidden treasures .Thanks to  Mr Tim BernersLee  invenor of the Internet !

mexican cardiology journal


Sample this arricle



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The principles of pre-discharge EST  

This concept came about 20 years ago (1980s) to risk stratify patients following  ACS to triage early coronary angiogram and revascualrisation. Generally patients are discharged by 5-7 days after an MI  (May be  3-5 days in some hospitals)  . Doing an exercise stress test  early within  2 weeks has not been very popular with many cardiologist even though it was recommended by many guidelines.The type of stress recommended  here  , is heart rate limited sub maximal 70% of  THR (Usually around  140 /mt )  is performed . This is due fear of precipitation another ACS.

Still,  there are definite  advantages for  pre-discharge EST .It help us  identify  high risk  subsets of  STEMI and reduce the  intermediate term mortality .More importantly it  gives  us an opportunity  to  exclude  inappropriate  revascualriations  even without an angiogram . (The well known coronary dogma  ie  if a post STEMI patient performs > 10  METS ,  his  heart carries little  risk  for  future events  still holds good  !)

With the advent of liberal usage of CAG and improved techniques of revascularistion ,  most  patients  directly undergo pre-discharge CAG rather than EST !

Further reading

Does any cardiologist have guts to do a pre- discharge EST after  a successful primary PCI ?

Read a related article in this blog .

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Some scientists are  known for their discovery ,  few are known for their vision  few for their character .Here was a man who  had  all of them  can be termed as father of modern medicine .

Rudolf Virchow - German pathologist( 1821-1902)

Unfortunately the current generation knows him for his concept and theory of blood clotting  or  lymph  node in the neck .

Here is a  reviews about this man who single handedly   taught  the world

He  insisted  , caring  the sick and treating illness  is  more of a social science than medical one

We  have probably  not  learnt  a single lesson yet , from this master  teacher is a different story !

Avid listeners to Virchow in Berlin university

My  Virchowian thoughts

This man’s understanding of medicine was much . . .  much sharper than us –  100 years ago  , when  cardiology was practiced  with out  even an  ECG and   X-ray chest  . ( Is itn’t  true   today  we struggle with  loads of  3 dimensinal  gadolinium enhanced  cardiac MRI ! images )

Virchow’s  concepts  are most relevant in today’s world  , where the corporate and capitalist  culture  has  hijacked the  noble profession . Inhabitants of this planet are  threatened with eccentrically blown up  healthcare  system   where  the  development of   modern medical   modalities is completely out phase of with what  is required for the people .

We will pay a heavy penalty  if  this world  continues to witness   people die  for as  flimsy  reasons  like lack of oral re-hydration fluids   , while the other section of society is  marketing an exotic  mitochondrial DNA  slicers  for prolonging a  cancer victim  life by few months .

In a global society  where  social , economic  and environmental  responsibilities  and liabilities  are shared ,  it would be disastrous if  one country is simply not bothered about what is happening in other country.

WHO the world health organization came into being exactly for this reason .

We know  .  . . how it functions .  It is the  most abused united nation body . It has  neither the required  power nor the will to  tell the world  and insist them the  righteous  route for human health !

If the rich  are  not bothered about poor ,  it is certain  the rich will  also be eliminated  from the planet  for the same reasons  . . . it’s  just  a matter of time   !




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Great people  do not boast  . While there are thousands of hyped up publications in cardiology ,

This one form Qatar excels , which  I  stumbled upon recently  contains very useful information about wide ranging issues in cardiology .

Let us congratulate the   Hamad medical corporation for  their unique  academic vision  .


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Internet is  a  wonderful gift for  for mankind   but  only  occasionally we find great resources .

Hats off to Dr .Pybus from Australia for his efforts

A must read for  all cardiologists rather  everyone involved with echocardiography

Click on the Image to reach the site


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A  humble  tribute to  Mr. Doppler : Let us  remember this  man ,  every time you hear that hissing  Doppler  signals   , as  we  put the Doppler probe inside the heart.

Doppler ‘s brief encounter with life

Gave us one of the greatest diagnostic tool .

Born in  1803 in Salzburg, Austria,  died  in Venice, Italy 1853

Click over the portrait to learn Doppler’s life

Read and enjoy yourself !

Doppler and his principle  : By Richard J. Bing, MD Professor of Medicine – USC (Em) – Director of Experimental Cardiology – Huntington Medical Research Institute Visiting Professor in Chemistry – California Institute of Technology – Calif – USA

http://www.dialogues-cvm.org/pdf/51/DCVM51_04.pdf Courtesy  Servier

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