Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Posts Tagged ‘classification of dual LAD’

Dual LAD is an interesting coronary artery anomaly proposed  originaly  by Spindola in 1983 .He classified it into 4 types. In recent years the  dual LAD has increased from 4 to 6 types.

The essential criteria to diagnose  could be summarised.

  1. Two LADs should be identified.
  2. One would be  large and another small
  3. Both should give a  diagonal  branch .

* Ramus is virtually unknown  if there is dual LAD .

The origin  of second LAD can be from

  • LMCA
  • RCA
  • Direct from Right coronary sinus

Course

  • Can be epicardial
  • Intra -myocardial
  • Or both

Branches

  • Diagonal
  • Septal
  • or Both

Drainage area

  • Highly variable

Implication for intervention

  1. Apart  from  the surprise element , the second LAD   has  little impact on the interventional protocol.
  2. However , it may confer a  ischemic protection  as the critical anterior wall has a twin blood supply.
  3. Whether  they are protected from primary  VT or VF is to be studied  because of better electrical stability
  4. Second LAD may act as an additional collateral channel.

Spindola’s  classification of Dual LAD (Types 1 to 4  was called sometimes A,B,C,D )

classification of dual LAD

Source : Lee et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2012, 12 :101

Spindola type 1 to 4 classification of dual LAD

An illustration of  first 4 types  of Dual LAD .Note  the type 4 originates from RCA. Image courtesy : Prachi P. Agarwal Ella A. Kazeroon . AJR:191, December 2008

Surgical issues ( This is  excellent data  from India . I convey  my   greetings to one  the authors Dr D.B Baruah,  my friend  from  CMC Vellore !)

dual lad classification Spindola-Franco H, Grose R, Solomon

Reference

Spindola-Franco H, Grose R, Solomon N. Dual left anterior descending coronary artery: angiographic description of important variants and surgical implications. Am Heart J 1983:105;445-55

Dual Left AnteriorDescending CoronaryArterySurgical Revascularization in 4 Patients Tex Heart Inst J 2000;27:292-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509398/pdf/1471-2261-12-101.pdf

Dual LAD  CT  Angiogram : http://www.ajronline.org/doi/pdf/10.2214/AJR.08.1193

Read Full Post »