Posts Tagged ‘microangioapthy’

Diabetes is a systemic disease affecting  almost every cell  that metabolises  glucose .What begins  as  a minor  functional impairment  ,   worsens gradually and ultimately   end up in severe  structural changes.The basement membrane of  cells  face  the brunt of the attack .  (In the strict sense every cell has a basement  but it is well  developed only in kidneys ) . We also  know , diabetes  is able to inflict universal damage by targeting the vascular endothelial cells.

In the kidneys DM makes the  glomerulus  more porous causing protein leak*  and ultimately damages the tubules and end up in CRF. In the retina it excretes the  proteinaceous  material into the vital layers  and result in  retinopathy and progressive visual loss.

* Micro/Macro albuminuria

In fact , there is  a very close link between eyes  and the kidneys  Nephrologists   hesitate to make a diagnosis  of diabetic nephropathy without ocular  changes. The peripheral vascular disease and diabetic foot are  another expression of this microvascular  dysfunction.

What is the impact on cardiac micro-circulation ?

Whenever significant diabetic nephropathy is present there must be a significant cardiac micro- angiopathy as well.This is now  a fact than an assumption. We are not recognizing it rather  ! (If only we have a cardiac  creatinine we can easily identify diabetic myocardial protein leak !)

When kidneys lose protein , cardiac capillaries  lose proteins to interstitial   space  and result  in progressive  fibrotic reaction . We know  extravasaation   of high osmolar  proteins   can play havoc  in cardiac interstitium  !

Proteins are the particles of life   . . . but in wrong places  it can  transform into deadly  molecules  in a fraction of time !

Hence ,  the cardiac protein leak in diabetes can cause  any of the following clinico -pathologic entities.

  • A mild left ventricular  hypertrophy .
  • Increase global  cardiac  mass (Similar to bulky kidneys  seen in early diabetic nephropathy )
  • Simple diastolic dysfunction.
  • Severe restrictive features
  • NDCM (Non dilated cardiomyopathy )
  • Finally a DCM  like  transformation

How to recognize cardiac protein leak ?

  • Clinically it presents either as  angina or early heart failure symptoms ( not both usually ) .Diastolic dysfunction  in echo,  positive stress test , patchy thallium uptake abnormality  often with  features  of   syndrome X  is also recognised.
  • Many of the low flow or slow flow phenomenon  in coronary angiograms  might reflect micro-circulatory dysfunction .
  • This is recognised by prolonged TIMI frame counts  and  prolonged  coronary sinus filling and emptying time .

What about macro-vascular  complications  in diabetes ?  How is it different from micro-vascular complications ?

Though we expect a direct  link between  micro and macro  vascular complication ,   the later  appears  to a  patho-genetically  independent  process . This will be addressed later.

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