LXR are a unique group of nuclear receptor proteins located in liver as well many body tissues where lipid metabolism is active. They are first identified in liver with apparently no ligands , they are hence referred to as X (Also called orphan receptors ) .Later these receptors can be termed as a target receptors for cholesterol metabolites like oxysterols .
How this nuclear receptors modify the subsequent events could ultimately determine the toxic effects of cholesterol in human body.
An update in NEJM appeared in 2007
The the science of lipidology is confronted by with suspicious , false targets .We are biochemically still pitch blind beyond a point . . . after cholesterol enters the cell .
We have been targeting cholesterol synthesis by blocking HMGCOA.
Statins though claimed to be the God sent molecule , genuine researchers would agree statins have a huge limitation and it is a hyped up drug in controlling atherosclerosis. In fact , it is believed (In private ) nearly 50% of people who take statin atherosclerosis goes unabated.
Can we modify how LDL cholesterol is going to be utilised inside the cell ?
LXR family of proteins along with RXR are expected to break the barrier.In knock out mice models LXR agonists are able to control and prevent LDL propagation within vascular cells .
The research is ongoing. Let us believe the right target has been identified . Nothing is guaranteed as of now . . . but out journey should continue .