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Posts Tagged ‘lvot vt’

How to name  a ventricular tachycardia ?

This  continues to be a  favorite past & present  time of  modern-day cardiologists. Especially ,  VTs associated with structurally normal heart  suffers with this  protracted problem .Widespread use of  EP study has not solved the issue as yet.

The   VTs that arise from the left ventricle in an apparently normal heart   has been referred  by  various terms.

  • VT with structurally  normal heart
  • Idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia
  • Verapamil sensitive  VT
  • Septal VT (It can be either myocardial /non myocardial origin)
  • Narrow qrs VT
  • Fasicular VT
  • LVOT tachycardia
  • Hemodynamically stable VT
  • Belhassen VT

Now we have still more exotic VTs like Cuspal , mitral annular , etc . All of the above can mean anything , or same thing   in different centers  ,  different cardiologists in different times .

* RVOT tachycardias also have  many synonyms.( Adenosine sensitive, Adrenergic,  Gallavardin, Parkinson Pop, etc )

VTs associated with CAD , valvular , myocardial diseases generally devoid of  nomenclature problems. Ischemic VT  is yet to be classified in a proper fashion.

The confusion in classifying VT is  not due to the complexity of heart disease. It is due to  the general  comprehension failure as  every VT can be described with reference to clinical , ECG morphology, hemodynamics and presence or absence of underlying heart disease. A simplified and clinically useful VT classification is being prepared in this forum .Will be published shortly .

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Acute coronary syndrome is the commonest cardiac emergency. STEMI and NSTEMI are the two clinical limbs of ACS. Generally they have distinct clinical, ECG, angiographic features.(Ofcourse,  with some degree of overlap) . It is  a  mystery , both clinical presentations differ so much inspite of the common denominator  , namely ,  an injured plaque with add on thrombus  within the coronary artery.

The mystery is since  decoded , the primary difference between these two entities is STEMI the occlusion occurs sudden and complete and in NSTEMI it occurs slow and incomplete

In STEMI ,  most of the clinical features and , need for emergent treatment , response to thrombolysis /PCI are dictated by the time dependent risk to myocardial loss .

Cardiac arrhythmias in ACS

It is a  much published  factoid   for  many decades  only one third of STEMI patients  reach the hospital alive ! The reason being , STEMI  is very much prone for primary VF.

Contrary  to this ,  almost all patients with NSTEMI reach the hospital alive ! How ?

Both are ACS, if ischemia is a powerful trigger for dangerous ventricular  arrhythmia’s ,  NSTEMI should also behave  similarly .

So what protects against arrhythmias in NSTEMI ?

  • We realise ,  by observational experience (Not EBM !)  It is the suddenness and totality of ischemia that trigger dangerous form of arrhythmia  .
  • Further, a balanced  ischemia in two contralateral segments (or global  ischemia) some how protects against development of ventricular  fibrillation .This may be due to preservation  of  electrical homogeneity  , and the spherical VT spiral waves are not sustainable.
  • In contrast , STEMI has a sudden  focal , ischemic  zone that initiates the VT and    ischemia free  contralateral segment  welcoming  and sustaining the  reentrant wavelet.
  • The observation of primarily single vessel disese in STEMI and multivessel disease in NSTEMI also give credence to this concept.
  • Further , ischemic preconditioning can exert an important anti arrhythmic  effect in NSTEMI as  patients with unstable angina have   slow, repetitive episodes of ischemia prior to the index event .
  • Post MI scar mediated VT/VF is independent of degree of overall ischemia
  • It is also established ,  a sub group of  STEMI pateints  who  had  preinfarction angina(  ie . a brief  period of UA/NSTEMI) have very low risk of SCD  supporting the concept of sensitising the myocardium against ventricular arrhythmias.

Final message

Even though , there is a convincing concept  of   ischemia induced  cardiac arrhythmia in literature , in real patients it is very difficult to link the two.

UA/NSTEMI is the most common  acute ischemic event but the incidence of VT/VF here,  is far less than one would expect.

In ACS , focal , total  ischemia is more likely to precipitate a VT/VF than multifocal and global ischemia.

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Ventricular tachycardia is considered as one of the most  dangerous  cardiac arrhythmia .Rather , it is the label  VT  that spreads more  fear than the arrhythmia itself. It is a fact many patients with VT walk into hospital , still  VT will always be a sinister arrhythmia as long as it carries a risk of degenerating into ventricular fibrillation.

What determines hemodynamic stability in VT ?

  • Origin and location of VT
  • The ventricular rate
  • Presence or absence of AV dissociation
  • Impact on mitral inflow pattern
  • Associated left ventricular dysfunction or valvular heart disease.
  • VT in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.(Ischemic VT)
  • Inappropriate drug selection

Origin and location

VTs originating high up in the ventricle( High septal VT,Proximal VTs) have more organised ventricular contraction  and they are more stable.Distal VT  originating  in the myocardium away from the conducting system has chaotic myocyte to myocyte conduction.These are very unstable.

The term fascicular VT is nothing but VTs originating  in the His bundle and it’s branches( Can also be termed Septal VT ).These VTs are also stable and some of them respond well to calcium blockers indicating that they are very close to the AV junction and carry the properties of junctional tachycardia. QRS width gives  a rough estimate about the location of VT. Narrower the VT higher it’s origin.( But remember even in VT ,  qrs can further widen on it’s way downhill !)

LV dysfunction.

This is probably the most important determinant of the outcome in VT. Patients with severe LV dysfunction (EF <30%) fare badly .Hence the land mark concepts from MADIT 1& 2 demanded ICDs in these patients.The most common clinical setting is  dilated cardiomyopathy.SomE of them have bundle branch re entry(BBR).This particular  VT can be stable for many  hours.

Ventricular rate.

Usually VT has a rate between 120-200.Higher the rate of VT more the chances of instability .This rule is also not always true as fascicular VT can be well tolerated at high rates.So location of VT focus  and LV dysfunction usually over rides the impact  of ventricular rate.

Mitral inflow pattern

Proper left ventricular filling is the key to hemodynamic stability in VT. In proximal, septal,fascicular, LVOT VTs doppler studies  suggest (ACC /AHA Type C evidence : Personal observations in CCU during VT) near normal preservation of  bi modal filling of mitral valve inflow.In ischemic myocardial VT  the mitral inflow profile is critically affected . There is no distinctive forward filling was observed .In fact  at rapid rates a short pulsatile MR jets are noted instead.

Associated valvular diseases

It is obvious,  aortic  and mitral valve disorders can aggravate the hemodyanmic instability.

Final message

The clinical behavior of  ventricular tachycardia is widely variable and dependent on multiple factors.

Associated LV dysfunction and  structural heart disease ultimately determine the outcome.

 

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