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Posts Tagged ‘tips and tricks in ptca’

I have never found it difficult to retrogradely cross a dangerous epicardial collateral in complex CTO. Delivering a twin stent in a partial culotte strategy for a bifurc lesion has never tested my talents. Stenting a left main across the LAD, jailing the LCX with OCT support is my favorite time pass. Crushing a calcium infested diffuse long lesion with diamond-tipped ablator appear as breezy as shopping in a mall.

But this one is really challenging 

What is that?

Understanding these four studies (Ref 1-4 ). They dogmatically say medical management confers definitive protection in chronic coronary syndromes. It stretches our limits of Imaginary Intelligence! How can a near tight coronary obstruction sitting right across your eyes, be left untouched? The latest one seems to suggest we can even ignore FFR positive lesions.

COURAGE BARI 2D ORBITA ISCHEMIA DRSVENKATESAN SHD CHRONIC STABLE HEART DISEASE PTCA PCI ACC ESC SCAI 2GUIDLEINES

It requires 4 negative forces . . . to bring one big positive Impact!

I don’t understand who is funding these negative trials and glorify it, and trying to defame the talents in me. All these studies have a huge lacuna. They conveniently exclude high-risk cases and allowed liberal cross over to PCI later on. Even the just-released ISCHEMIA trial had 38 % patient with no angina. (But why they received PCI ?) How to Interpret these trials and extract the true conclusion? .One consolation is, I know these negative trials have a very short memory and expiry date. Very soon I shall be liberated from the clutches of this negativism.

Even as I scribble this, my inner conscious is telling a completely different story. I agree we do Indulge a lot in stable Ischemic Heart disease. (SIHD).  I am yet to be clear what exactly we mean by SIHD. How is that near 90 % mid LAD guy ran 12 met exercise with negligible perfusion defect and still FFR was .7 ?

OMG, save me from this academic conundrum and help to acquire true wisdom.

Reference

1.Weintraub WS, Spertus JA, Kolm P, Maron DJ, Zhang Z, Jurkovitz C, et al. For the COURAGE Trial Research Group. Effect of PCI on quality of life in patients with stable coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(7):677–687. [PubMed[]

2.BARI 2D Study Group. Frye RL, August P, Brooks MM, Hardison RM, Kelsey SF, MacGregor JM, et al. A randomized trial of therapies for type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(24):2503–2515. [PMC free article] [PubMed[]

3.Al-Lamee R, Thompson D, Dehbi HM, Sen S, Tang K, Davies J, et al. ORBITA Investigators Percutaneous coronary intervention in stable angina (ORBITA): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2018;391(10115):31–40. [PubMed[]

4. International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches – ISCHEMIA

 

 

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I asked some of my experienced colleagues, how much time they inflate the balloon to deliver a stent? Most answers were spontaneous and unanimous “It’s hardly 10 seconds,  few said maybe up to 15s.

Can prolonged balloon inflation time reduce the need for post dilatation and prevent mal-apposition?

We know high-pressure Inflation( up to 20 atmospheres ) was a big revelation in the science of PTCA more than two decades ago. (Antonio Colombo JACC 1995  ) He proposed and proved high-pressure inflation eliminated the need for routine anticoagulation following stenting as approximation was better. He also pioneered the concept of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in the PCI arena.

Similarly, prolonged balloon Inflation  (30 to 60sec) could be another trendsetting tip to prevent malposition. It delivers more sustained pressure. Its believed the imparted centrifugal force and the inbuilt radial forces add up to the stent vessel wall Interface and prevent mal-apposition.

Is there a downside to high-pressure Inflation?

There must be few.  Potential new Ischemic events and arrhythmia. In calcium laden plaques( spur) risk of perforation may be enhanced.

Final message 

I don’t know why this concept never took off. Many of us still fear to inflate the stent balloon no longer than 10 to 20 seconds? Adhoc post dilatation with short NC balloon appears mandatory in areas of mal-apposition. Meanwhile, we also understand sustained (30-60s) high-pressure initial inflation could deliver the stent in a more synchronized and smooth fashion with a perfect metal/vessel wall interface. Further , prolonged balloon inflation times could make a routine (By the way who does routine ?)  IVUS/OCT redundant.

What do the experts say?  What does science say?  There is one meta-analysis that clearly says the advantage of long inflation time. This issue becomes much more relevant as it could avoid post dilatation which all of us know can be tricky. In fact, every balloon dilatation should be technically counted as another PTCA procedure and adds up to net total risk.

Reference

1.M. Saad, M. Bavineni, B. F. Uretsky, and S. Vallurupalli, “Improved stent expansion with prolonged compared with short balloon inflation: a meta-analysis,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 92, pp. 873–880, 2018. View at Google Scholar 

2.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317175130_Shorter_duration_of_balloon_inflation_time_results_in_greater_malapposition_during_PCI_with_DES_in_patients_with_stable_coronary_artery_disease_a_randomised_control_trial_of_the_second_STent_OPtimisat

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