Archive for March, 2012

If only we realise . . . even a healthy  human life   . . . has a mortality of 100 % at some point of  life  , the mentally immortal  modern human species won’t demand for  a  2 % chance of living   “30 more  miserable days”   with terminal cancer !

Venkatesan  Sangareddi (2012)

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Up to 24 hours

  • Failed thrombolysis and persistent infarct related chest pain
  • Prolonged  Infarct pain  in spite of successful thrombolysis (Rare)
  • Dual STEMI and Dual ACS ( Combination of STEMI/NSTEMI)  *

* Generally  until   after  24 hours one should not make a second coronary syndrome  though  logically  it is possible ( Dual acute coronary syndrome)

After 24 hours -up to 2 weeks

  • Post MI angina  – IRA related (Re-occlusion, Threatened reocclusion)
  • Post MI angina -Non IRA related ( Critical  non -IRA lesion)
  • Thrombus migration /Side branch occlusion
  • Re infarction -Same territory
  • Re-infarction-Remote territory
  • Infarct extension, Infarct expansion , Dyskinetic segments  ( Acute ventricular  remodeling  has a potential to generate pain )
  • Combinations of the above


24 hour is  arbitrary cut off .There can be spill overs and over laps

*Refractory non ischemic  chest pain often atypical not relieved by anti anginal  medication   – Pericardits, Coronary dissections , myocardial /Pap muscle  tears .

After thought

Do we need to break our brain  to  find  the source of angina  following STEMI ?

Principles of scientific medicine  would demand it  . However   in this era of  hyper active interventional  cardiologists  there is little purpose  as they  tend to  open up all occluded arteries   guided by the  their  ignorance about the source of chest pain.


Video on Dual  coronary syndrome

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Click  to down  load a PDF  version

This was presented in the cardiology fellow training course in Chennai – March 2012

(Acknowledgement : Paul wood collection , J.K Perloff , Credit to Images from open source )

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Improving upon  (or help  improve )  others idea is still  a great  research contribution.

No need to feel inferior about it !

Steve Jobs exactly did this  . . . and  he was a great visionary !

Unfortunately ,  it is looked upon as partial  plagiarism in some quarters  . It need not be !


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Left main coronary artery is  considered as the sanctum sanatorium  for  the cardiologists .

One would wish  to rule out  disease of left main  in any given  patient with CAD.

Though there are strong clinical predictors of  LMD, this  segment of the coronary artery  tends to  throw   surprises.

A  strongly positive stress test,  ST elevation in AVR  , fall in blood pressure with exertion  are good markers of left main disease.

Still,  in the era of  optical coherence tomography (OCT )  and IVUS  , we do  have a simple tool that can image the left main coronary artery fairly accurately .

We know the  resolution power of  routine trans thoracic echo  is 3mm and above  . (It can detect vegetation of that size easily !)

So , it can easily accomplish  the task of  imaging the  left main ostium .(which is a minimum of  4-5mm diameter )

How to image left main by echo ?

  • Parasteranal long axis  or short axis  the ideal view. Short axis would also  help.
  • Normal left main is easily diagnosed  by two parallel  lines . ( See above picture )
  • Plaques are  diagnosed when this line is  distorted  and filled by haziness.
  • Significant ostio proximal  lesion must never be missed by TTE .However distal left main can not be assessed in most .
  • Doppler assessment may not be possible in all as pulse doppler sample volume can not be placed in left main.
  • Trans esophageal echo would increase the yield.

Final message

Processing power of echo machines  and  their image quality has improved  vastly over the years. The existing literature about left main imaging  by echo are based on old generation machines. The data are as obsolete as those  machines . This has to be kept in mind.

I wonder why most cardiologist are averse ( rather feel guilty ) to report  the  status of  left  main  artery  by  echo cardiography .

Every patient with  a  positive TMT must undergo a  focused echocardiogram  of  left main . You will be rewarded with a  good glimpse of the sacred segment  of coronary artery 9 out of 10 times  !

So , can we shoot the Left main  at the bed side  ?

Yes definitely  . . . if only we wish to !

* A correction

The left coronary visualised in this parasternal Long axis view is in fact exceptional. The ostium and shaft often better seen in short axis in around 3-4 O clock position.

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