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Posts Tagged ‘cardaic arrhythmias’

                                         Ventricular  tachycardia is considered as a dangerous electrical rhythm abnormality .It can immediately degenrate into ventricular fibrillation and result in SCD in many.Ironically, it is also a fact , a patient with VT can  present silently  without any symptom  .Some VTs are slow and recurrent without much affecting The hemodyanmics.

 

In chronic recurrent, beningn VT (Some may consider it , ” height of  absurdity ” to call a VT beningn ! but it  is a reality , the term beningn denotes –  very remote chance of converting into VF) ” Is there any other therapeutic option other than convertng into sinus rhythm. “(  Read related topics)

 

The following paper was presented in the Annual scientific sessions of  Cardiological society of India,  Kochi , seven years ago in  2002

 

VENTRICULAR RATE CONTROL  IN  VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA 

S.Venkatesan,,. Madras Medical College. Chennai

 

                           Mangement of  hemodynamically  stable  recurrent   ventricular tachycardia  remains a  delicate clinical problem. Reverting to  sinus rhythm  is  considered as  the only aim  of  treating  VT.While rate control is accepted as a therapeutic  option  in atrial fibrillation,  it is not  so,  for  ventricular tachycardia.In this  context  we attempted to analyse  the effect of  Amiodarone on   ventricular  rate  in stable ventricular tachycardia  which fail to convert  to sinus rhythm.

 

                            The  study cohort consisted of 49 patients with stable VT  who were admitted in the coronary care unit  of  Govt. General Hospital  between 1998 to 2002.The criteria for inclusion   were systolic BP>100mmHg and absence of  hypoperfusion of vital organs  The mean age was 52 years (range 26-68)  with a male female ratio  of 4:1.   Of the study group 36 patients  were either reverted with  IV lignocaine , Amiodarone ( 150-300mg   bolus )  or  DC  cardioversion . 13  patients  who did not respond to   either of these   were  followed up  with  Amiodaroneinfusion(1000mg)  for 24 hours.  The baseline  diagnosis were old MI (6)) DCM (3)  Arrhythmogenic RV displasia(2). Idiopathic VT was diagnosed in  2 patients.All these patients had  VT  during  most part of  the   24 hour  follow up.

                     

                         The pre Amiodarone mean  ventricular rate was  152  (124 –196).  Post amiadaorne (at 24hrs) mean ventricular rate was 128(88-142). The time taken for   50% heart  rate reduction was  6.6h (4-24h).  The average  systolic blood pressure  improved from  100   to  112mmhg . These patients were  discharged  in stable clinical status with oral Amiodarone and  were  referred for  EP study.

 

                          It is concluded that Amiodarone, apart from it’s cardioverting ability , has a distinct ventricular  rate controlling  effect  which  can be of therapeutic value in  at least certain subset of chronic recurrent VT.

Final message

 

Some of  the patients  with VT carry a very low risk of VF  and SCD .In these  patients , the only  other major  aim is to prevent tachycardiac cardiomyopathy  that can be done with drugs which  controls  the ventricular rate whenever  VT occurs !

Corrrecting the primary cause like cardiac failire , revascularisation ,detailed EP study  ,tachycardia mapping , followed by RF ablation and ICD implantation is  the state of the art approch in the management of VTs.But this small clinical observation was made to  impress rate control could also be an option  in patients  in whom these procedures are  contraindicated  or not  available . 

 

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Ventricular  tachycardia (VT)  is one  of  the   dangerous form of  cardiac arrhythmias.

When it occurs , it may present  in  many ways

  • Cardiac arrest with immediate degeneration into ventricular fibrillation. 
  • Pulseless VT in a  conscious patient but in  in shock.
  • With pulse, relatively stable , not much fall in blood pressure.
  • Incidentally detected.*(Rare)

This , gives us  an idea  that VT  as an electrical abnormality has wide clinical presentations , life threatening  at one end and,  patient walking into the hospital with minimal palpitation on the other hand !

The management issues

  • In patients with hemodynamic instability , decision making is easy as there is only option of DC shock.
  • In patients with stable VT, it is natural for the physicians to get tentative or even confused.This is because , dangers of shocking a stable patient has to be weighed against the currently available excellent antiarrhytmic drugs( Amiodarone, Ibutilide etc) .

 

The major issue here is  in  ruling out underlying structural heart disease.

Never shock a stable VT, without knowing the myocardial and valvular function.There has been many occasions underlying  severe LV dysfunction is missed   and they may go for asystole.

VT in the setting of cardiomyopathy, Post MI(Scar mediated) are often refractory even to DC shocks.It is the drugs that will  ultimately control the arrhythmia.DC shock is just used to terminate the VT.

VT  structurally normal heart , especially arising the outflow tracts of LV or RV  behave very differently (Fortunately they are more benign)

  • Have less hemodynamic  impact as it involves the outflow tract and  not over the  the pumping  zone of LV as in conventional ischemic myocardial VT .
  • They  respond to calcium blockers  verapamil to be precise (As they share properties of SVTs)
  • Sensitivity to verapamil by no way convey a meaning of Amiodarone resistance.Out flow tract VTs will also respond to Amiodarone many times.
  • Degeneration into VF is rare.

 

Also  read  Therapeutic issues in stable ventricular tachycardia

Presented and published in Indian heart journal

vtvt-therapeutic-issues1

Click  on link download PPT ventricular tachycardia

 

Related topics

Why some ventricular tachycardias are resistant , even to multiple DC shocks ?

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