Posts Tagged ‘arvd’

Right ventricle is a passive venous component of the heart .It simply acts a  transit pump for blood to reach the lungs.

It  is true  , RV is dispensable in many complex congenital heart disease as we  can connect the great veins directly into the pulmonary artery  by  Fontan , Glean and it’s clones  bye passing this chamber . Still , by no means the importance of this chamber is to be underestimated.  RV dysfunction and failure  is the key to survival  many  disorders.RV shock is is cause of sudden cardiac death in acute pulmonary embolism and RV infarction .

RV is an unique muscular chamber .It is more of a triangular shape. It has  three different parts connected by three different angle .There is no true  apex  for RV , it is   connected  to Inflow and outflow in peculiar fashion .

In the  following table I have  tired to  describe  of how different parts of RV  behave in various disorders.

what is the morphology of  RV enlargement RV inflow outflow body sinus portion of RV

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A young man with   VT  (LBBB morphology ) and  apparently normal heart by   echocardiogram  is  a  real  diagnostic challenge .
Here is a comparison  of  the two  closely mimicking  entities. RVOT VT and ARVD .
Please note -Micro reentry and triggered activity  are very closely related cellular evens. For all clinical reasons there is generally no purpose in differentiating the two.

*Please note -Micro reentry and triggered activity  mimic each other at the cellular level . For all clinical reasons there is generally no purpose in differentiating the two.

*RVOT- Right ventricular outflow tract. ARVD/ARVC -Arrhythmogenic  right ventricular dysplasia /cardiomyopathy

(Caution : RVOT vs ARVD  -In  the traditional medical teaching system , we are often taught to differentiate  two closely related  entities.Our brain also loves to look things in either black or white . Realise , medical science always brings  surprises . There can be significant overlaps between the very entities we want to differentiate.Bear that in mind)


1. Hoffmayer KS, Machado ON, Marcus GM, Electrocardiographic comparison of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Aug 16;58(8):831-8.

2 .Ainsworth CD, Skanes AC, Klein GJ Differentiating arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy from right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia using multilead QRS duration and axis. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Apr;3(4):416-23.

T wave inversion in V1 TO V3 for diagnosing  RVOT VT .

3.Daniel P. Morin,  Andreas C. Mauer, Kathleen Gear, Usefulness of Precordial T-Wave Inversion to Distinguish Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy from Idiopathic Ventricular Tachycardia Arising from the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract .Am J Cardiol. 2010 June 15; 105(12): 1821–1824

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Moderator band is a ubiquitous structure  found inside right ventricular   cavity , often overl0oked by cardiologists. God has created no structure  without any purpose ! Moderator band has important role to play  both in physiology and pathology .

Image credit and courtesey : Whoever has created

The table attempts to summarise  the features  of moderator band. The  structural and functional behavior of moderator band  in , RV cardiomyopathy , RV non compaction and arrhythmogenic  RV dysplasia is not fully studied yet  . Reference :Content is taken from various sources and with a personal input in few places.  The anatomical data is largely taken from the pioneering  work of cardiac  pathologist and morphologist  RH Anderson of  United kingdom.

Here is an article  from my institute Madras medical college  published in Indian journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascualr surgery in 1982.

An autopsy study  on moderator band   by Paul Ravindran and   Solomon victor


http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/67/6/1268.full.pdf+html http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20235167


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                                         Ventricular  tachycardia is considered as a dangerous electrical rhythm abnormality .It can immediately degenrate into ventricular fibrillation and result in SCD in many.Ironically, it is also a fact , a patient with VT can  present silently  without any symptom  .Some VTs are slow and recurrent without much affecting The hemodyanmics.


In chronic recurrent, beningn VT (Some may consider it , ” height of  absurdity ” to call a VT beningn ! but it  is a reality , the term beningn denotes –  very remote chance of converting into VF) ” Is there any other therapeutic option other than convertng into sinus rhythm. “(  Read related topics)


The following paper was presented in the Annual scientific sessions of  Cardiological society of India,  Kochi , seven years ago in  2002



S.Venkatesan,,. Madras Medical College. Chennai


                           Mangement of  hemodynamically  stable  recurrent   ventricular tachycardia  remains a  delicate clinical problem. Reverting to  sinus rhythm  is  considered as  the only aim  of  treating  VT.While rate control is accepted as a therapeutic  option  in atrial fibrillation,  it is not  so,  for  ventricular tachycardia.In this  context  we attempted to analyse  the effect of  Amiodarone on   ventricular  rate  in stable ventricular tachycardia  which fail to convert  to sinus rhythm.


                            The  study cohort consisted of 49 patients with stable VT  who were admitted in the coronary care unit  of  Govt. General Hospital  between 1998 to 2002.The criteria for inclusion   were systolic BP>100mmHg and absence of  hypoperfusion of vital organs  The mean age was 52 years (range 26-68)  with a male female ratio  of 4:1.   Of the study group 36 patients  were either reverted with  IV lignocaine , Amiodarone ( 150-300mg   bolus )  or  DC  cardioversion . 13  patients  who did not respond to   either of these   were  followed up  with  Amiodaroneinfusion(1000mg)  for 24 hours.  The baseline  diagnosis were old MI (6)) DCM (3)  Arrhythmogenic RV displasia(2). Idiopathic VT was diagnosed in  2 patients.All these patients had  VT  during  most part of  the   24 hour  follow up.


                         The pre Amiodarone mean  ventricular rate was  152  (124 –196).  Post amiadaorne (at 24hrs) mean ventricular rate was 128(88-142). The time taken for   50% heart  rate reduction was  6.6h (4-24h).  The average  systolic blood pressure  improved from  100   to  112mmhg . These patients were  discharged  in stable clinical status with oral Amiodarone and  were  referred for  EP study.


                          It is concluded that Amiodarone, apart from it’s cardioverting ability , has a distinct ventricular  rate controlling  effect  which  can be of therapeutic value in  at least certain subset of chronic recurrent VT.

Final message


Some of  the patients  with VT carry a very low risk of VF  and SCD .In these  patients , the only  other major  aim is to prevent tachycardiac cardiomyopathy  that can be done with drugs which  controls  the ventricular rate whenever  VT occurs !

Corrrecting the primary cause like cardiac failire , revascularisation ,detailed EP study  ,tachycardia mapping , followed by RF ablation and ICD implantation is  the state of the art approch in the management of VTs.But this small clinical observation was made to  impress rate control could also be an option  in patients  in whom these procedures are  contraindicated  or not  available . 


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