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Posts Tagged ‘free wall rupture’

What are the   structures that  can get punctured and result in cardiac tamponade during PTMC ?

  1. Aorta
  2. LA  roof ( Many parts of LA are extra pericardial . Still ,  if you are good enough !  you can enter the pericardium )
  3. LA free wall
  4. IAS  /pericardial space Interface (Stitch effect )
  5. LV free wall
  6. Pulmonary vein
  7. RA free wall

Traditionally  cardiologist’s major  fear is  confined to  accidental  aortic puncture . With growing  experience  &   inexperience   we  now know   PTMC  is vested with other  risks  for cardiac puncture other than Aorta .

  • LA roof  puncture can occur if the septal puncture is high  and  the movement of sheath over IAS plane is not smooth . ( Animated  to and fro movement across IAS is largely unnecessary !)
  • LA free wall when the guidewire is manipulated.
  • The  right atrial side of IAS  often  over shoots the LA side of IAS . This brings a unique situation where  Brocken-burrogh needle may  enter the LA through pericardial space .One may not be aware of this until you pull back the needle when pericardial
  • LV free wall  rupture is  rare with Inoue technique .Over the wire  balloon technique with a guide wire tip can cause LV injury
  • Accidental  pulmonary vein inflation with the balloon is  always  possible. One has to verify the balloon position in lateral view.
  • RA free wall should not happen  today . Still  a distorted RA anatomy due to associated  tricuspid regurgitation or stenosis . This can bring a surprise element to our understanding of IAS septal alignment .

Reference

http://interventions.onlinejacc.org/data/Journals/JCIN/22697/04019.pdf

Joseph G, Chandy ST, Krishnaswami S, et al. Mechanisms of cardiac perforation leading to tamponade in balloon mitral valvuloplasty.
Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1997;42:138–46.

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Ventricular septal rupture is a major mechanical complication of STEMI . Excruciating  chest pain ,  is the sine qua non of  any myocardial tear , dissection and rupture . It is surprising ,   VSR  following STEMI  is rarely a painful event . I can recall number of  such events  , when a  stable   patient with persistent ST elevation  in the  coronary care unit ,   wakes up next morning  with a systolic murmur.And echo reveals a septal defect promptly.

Three  reasons  can be  proposed  for relatively  pain free rupture of IVS in STEMI.

  1. Typically  VSR  occurs in 3rd or 4 th day of infarct . By this time myocardium  can be as  soft as an ice cream ! . There is not much stress and strain at the site. The necrotic  debri just gives way to spikes of   LV systolic pressure .
  2. For rupture to occur there   must be  transmural infarct  .The pain nerve terminals also die in the process .
  3. Further , it is a cavity to cavity rupture  (LV to RV ) . Direct pericardial  stretch  does not occur .

* Ventricular free wall tear   is a near fatal event is extremely painful .This  often occurs  in the first 24 hours when  the nerve terminals are  alive . The free wall rupture is more of  a  tear in the plane of  myocardium . The  pericardial  (epicardium)  layer has  rich   somatic  nerve supply .

In summary

Early  myocardial  tear   involving the epicardial  surface can be severely  painful  .  Late giving way  of softened  , necrotic  often  hemorrhagic muscle ( especially in the IVS ) is less painful or totally painless.

Coming soon   . . .

By the    . . .  what happens  to  pieces of  septal myocardium as it  gives way  and enter the right ventricle   ?

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We know,  electrical deaths constitute the bulk of sudden cardiac deaths in MI.  Mechanical deaths due to pump failure, muscle rupture , valve leak , also cause significant deaths   .(Surprisingly many of the mechanical deaths   may also   fulfill  the sudden death criteria !)

Free wall rupture is  invariably a fatal event. Papillary  muscle trunk  rupture  leads to severe LVF and unless intervened sure to result in fatality.

The ones who tear their interventricular septum  are some what blessed ! Here ,  the rupture does not result in instant death as there is  no loss of blood ,   instead , there is an  volume over load of right ventricle  followed by the  left ventricle  after a  few beats. Hypotension is the  rule. Even though this is a major complication there is something about  VSR which makes it unique.

Sudden giving way of IVS has  a decompressing effect on the ailing left ventricle.This many times  bring a  temporary relief to LV and if the patient survives the first few hour he is likely to stabilise  further . In fact , sudden deaths within 24hours after the onset of VSR is an exception.This defect always gives the cardiologists and surgeon some time to plan the management. We need to use this time judiciously.

The natural history is delicate . Five themes are possible

  1. Very unstable Instant death( Fortunately a  rare theme )
  2. Unstable – Deteriorating further
  3. Unstable to Stable * fit for discharge even without surgery
  4. Stable from the onset and  continue to be stable* .
  5. Stable to Unstable (Probably the most common theme )

* Pleasant themes occasionally witnessed !)

Here is 55 year old women came with extensive anterior MI with lower septal rupture.(She belonged to type 3 of the above scheme)

)

Note the septal rupture is visible even in 2D Echo

 

Color flow showing significant shunting from LV to RV.This shunt depends upon the LV contractile function, LVEDP and ofcourse the RV pressure

 

If there is severe RV dysfunction or bi ventricular dysfunction flow across the defect is inconspicuous.Brisk left to right shunting may be an indirect marker for good LV systolic function and absence of significant pulmonary hypertension.Both imply a better outcome.

The main determinant  of survival is the  underlying LV dysfunction and associated co morbidity(Renal function ) and complications .

Infero -posterior ruptures tend to be complex and  may have multiple irregular tracks  that makes it difficult to repair.

Investigations

Echo cardiogram is the mainstay .Serial echos should be done to assess the mechanical function and the progress of VSR.Hemodynamic monitoring may be done without injuring the patient .

Medical management

  • Often supportive , but  effective . Dobutamine infusion can maintain a life for few days.
  • Paradoxically , LV dysfunction and elevated LVEDP restricts volume overloading of VSD.
  • Associated MR, Arrhythmias  need to be taken care of .

Surgeons role

  • Very Vital.
  • Experience counts.(Individual as well as  Institutional )

Timing of surgery

Continues to be a controversy . Surgeons love to operate in a stable patient. But they need to realise , surgery is often needed to stabilise  many  patients. . The issue of tissue friability  is blown out of proportion in the literature .When a  life is  is at danger we can not worry about  friable tissues !

The rule of thumb could be

  • Operate as early as possible in unstable patient.
  • Post pone surgery in stable patient as late as possible ( Late here means . . .elective non emergent surgery )

Surgical options

  • Simple VSR closure without  knowing coronary anatomy
  • Simple VSR closure after knowing coronary anatomy
  • VSR closure with CABG ( total revascularization)
  • VSR closure with partial revascularization

In our experience  each of the above , has a role in a given patient depending upon the logistic , financial , social and even  the available expertise. (A good surgeon in bad Institution !)

Is coronary angiogram mandatory  before attempting to close VSR ?

Logically yes. If it is not available  just do not bother .  But, many times , when issue is saving lives , we can not afford to be too scientific , many lives have been saved by not following  such strict  protocols .A simple emergency  thoracotomy and closure of rupture site (Without even touching the LAD ) can be a distinct  and viable option in  a selected few .

Role of cardiologists

Contrary to the popular belief the role of cardiologists is minimal , except  to prepare  the patient and hand over to the surgeon.

Interventional approach to close  a VSR  is currently  be termed as an  adventurous option ! The VSRs  can assume unpredictable shapes  and the  tears can be multiple  in  different planes. The devices , catheters and  other hard ware are not specifically made to tackle these  issues  .An acquired VSR  should never be compared with congenital VSD.

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