Posts Tagged ‘streptokinase’

Answer: Do  coronary angiogram  for all patients  who had suffered from an acute myocardial infarction* ( Forget about all those mulitpage ACC/AHA  guidelines !).

For an  interventional cardiologist ,  it is often  considered a crime to  follow a conservative  approach !

*Caution This one line guideline is not based on scientific fact  but reality based . Ideally one should identify  high risk subsets among the patients who had an AMI .Patients who had complications during the MI get immediate CAG. Others need  a focused LV function asessment ,  pre discharge  sub maximal excercise stress test or perfusion studies .But this concept has been  virtually replaced by pre discharge coronary angiogram for all ,  in many  of the centres in the world.

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Differential response of thrombolysis between left and right coronary system

  • Thrombolysis is the specific treatment for acute myocardial infarction. ( Privileged few , get primary PCI))
  • Failed thrombolysis occurs in significant number of patients ( 30-40%).
  • Persistent ST elevation  120 minutes after thrombolysis is best indicator of failed thrombolysis.
  • It has been a consistent observation  failed  thromolysis  is more frequent in anterior   or LAD myocardial infarction.

In a simple study we have documented  patients  with inferior MI  rarely had persistent ST elevation and thrombolysis  was   successful in vast majority  of  patients  ( Except in few patients associated lateral MI)


The mechanism of better thrombolysis in right coronary artery  is simple.The success of thrombolysis , apart from early time window , is directly correlated with pressure head  and the duration of contact between the thrombolytic agent and the thrombus. In right coronary circulation the  blood flow is continuous ,  occurs  both in systole and diastole that facilitates the maximum delivery of the thrombolytic agent . Further there is a favorable  pressure gradient  across RV myocardium  as the transmural occluding pressure across RV is considerably less then LV myocardium.

This paper was presented in the  “Annual cardiological society of India scientific sessions”

at Chennai, Tamil Nadu.India December 2000

Click to down load PPT full presentation

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                                  Indication for thrombolysis in ST elevation MI  is mainly determined by clinical and ECG features. ST elevation of more than 1mm in two consecutive leads with a clinical suspicion of acute coronary event demands immediate thrombolysis.

                                 Early repolarisation syndrome(ERS) is a  is typical mimicker of STEMI . In ERS , ST segment elevation occurs in many leads especially precardial .This entity is estimated to occur in nearly 3-5% of population where a genetic variation in the potassium channel activation is reported.

                              If they  land in ER with some sort of chest pain , chances are high for labelling  them as ACS . It is not uncommon for  CCU physicians  to  witness  an  ERS being lysed . Even in many of the land mark trials (ISIS ) there has been many inappropriate thrombolysis , recognised later on.

What can really happen if you thromolyse them inadvertently ?

Generally nothing happens . But they are exposed to the risk of thromolysis. The ECG changes persist. And troponin will be negative and  echocardiogram will not reveal any wall motion defect.

Are we legally liable if a patient  with ERS was thrombolysed and he ends up with a bleeding complication like stroke ?

                        While the physician may feel guilty , there is no reasons for him to feel so.The guidelines are kept little lineant  for  the indication for thromolysis. When we are promoting  a strategy of early  thrombolyis  on a population based approach  in STEMI ,  there is bound to have a overlap with normality .The benefits out of early thrombolysis for eligible  patients for outweigh the few inappropriate thromolysis.

When you want to catch  a   real criminal  it is unavoidable,  one gets hold of all suspected criminals before letting them free . Unfortunately  in this exercise , some of the innocent  might experience   intimidation or even a injury  at the hands of law enforcers.

                               Similarly if a patient with ERS develop a severe esophageal spasm and typical  angina like chest pain he is absolutely certain to receive thrombolysis. (Troponin, CPK come later , and the results never veto the clinical and ECG criteria ,except probably in LBBB) .Many times critical  time dependent decisions are prone for errors in CCU.   So it may be  unscientific to ask why an ERS was  thrombolysed !

 How can one prevent inadvertent thrombolysis in ERS ?

                            Always ask for the previously recorded ECGs .If it is available and  look exactly similar to the current ECG  chances are unlikely  for ACS. In ERS ST segment is generally concavity upwards . ACC/AHA  guideline for STEMI  ,is  aware of this fact , but still  advices thrombolysis for all ST elevation irrespective of the morphology of ST segment elevation. This is propably intentional,   not  to incorporate morphology cirteria of ST elevation  for thromolysis .It would potentially  make many true STEMIs  diagnosed falsely  as ERS and deny thrombolysis.


What is the latest news about ERS ?

                       Now data are coming up, ERS is not entirely benign condition.Some of them ( Even a fraction of ERS population could be a significant number) can have a overlap between Brugada syndrome and they  could be prone for dangerous ventricular arrhythmia when challanged with ischemic or other stress.

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              Intra coronary thrombosis is the sine qua non of acute coronary syndrome ( Both STEMI and NSTEMI.) But thrombolysis is the specific therapy in STEMI and is contraindicated in NSTEMI/UA.

Why is this apparent paradox ? What is basic differnce between UA and AMI ?

In STEMI there is a sudden & total occlusion of a coronary artery usually by a thrombus with or without a plaque .The immediate aim is to open up the blood vessel . Every minute is important as myocardium undergoes  a continuous process ischemic necrosis. So thrombolysis (or more specifically fibrinolysis should be attempted immediately) .The other option is primary angioplasty,  which will not be discussed here.

The thrombus in STEMI  is RBC &  fibrin rich and often called a red clot. Number of fibrinolytic agents like streptokinase, Tissue palsminogen activator,(TPA) Reteplace, Tenekteplace etc have been tested and  form the cornerstone of STEMI management.The untoward effect of stroke  during  thrombolysis  is well recognised , but usully the risk benefit ratio favors thrombolyis in most situations except in very elderly and previous history of stroke or bleeding disorder.

Unstable angina is a  close companion of STEMI . Many times it precedes STEMI often called preinfarction angina. During this phase blood flow in the coronary artery  becomes sluggish gradually,and patients develop  angina at rest .But unlike STEMI there is never a total occlusion and myocardium  is viable but ischemic,  and emergency salvaging of myocardium is not a therapeutic aim but prevention of MI becomes an aim. It is a paradox of sorts ,  even though thrombus is present in  UA ,  It has been learnt by experience thrombolytic agents are not useful in preventing an MI .


Why  thrombolysis is not useful in UA ?

1.In unstable angina  mechanical obstruction in the form of plaque fissure/rupture is more common than completely occluding thrombus. So lysis becomes less important.

2. Even if the thrombus is present , it is often intra plaque  or intra lesional and the  luminal  projection of thrombus is reduced  and hence thromolytic agents have limited area to act.

3.Further in UA/NSTEMI since it is a slow and gradual occlusion (Unlike sudden & total occlusion in STEMI) the platelets  get marginalised and trapped within the plaque .Hence in UA  thrombus is predominantly  white  . Often, a central platelet core  is  seen over which fibrin clot may also be  formed.

4.All available  thrombolytic agents act basically as a fibrinolytic agents,  and   so it finds   difficult to lyse the platelet rich clot.There is also a small risk of these agents lysing the fibrin cap and exposing underlying platelet  core and trigger a fresh thrombus.This has been documented in many trials( TIMI 3b to be specific) So if we thrombolyse in UA , there could be a risk of recurrent ACS episodes in the post thrombolytic phase.

5. UA is a semi emergency where  there is no race against time to salvage myocardium .Administering a  stroke prone thrombolytic agent tilts the risk benefit ratio against it.

6. Among UA, there is a significant group of secondary /perioperative UA   due to increased demand situations. Here there is absolutely no role for any thromolytic agents,  the  simple reason is , there is  no thrombus to get lysed. 

7.Many of the UA patient have multivessel CAD and might require surgical revascualarisation directly .


So fibrinolytic  agents are contraindicated in UA so what is the next step ?

The emergence of  intensive and aggressive platelet-lytic agents.

A combination of aspirin, clopidogrel, heparin, glycoprotien 2b 3a antagonist formed the major therapeutic protocol in these patients.Even though these are called antiplalet agents some of them  like 2b/3a antagonist eptifibatide, tirofiban, and many times even heparin has a potential to dissolve a thrombus. So technically one can call these agents  as thrombolytic agents.

What are the unresolved issues

                                       Even though clinical trials have convincingly shown thrombolytic agents  have no use in UA .There is a nagging belief  THAT  there could  be group of patients  with UA , still might benefit from thrombolysis as total occlusions have been documented  in some cases with UA.This is  especially true in peri-infarction unstable angina (Pre & post) as there is a fluctuation  between total and subtotal occlusions ) .But bed side recognition of this population is very difficult.

Many would consider this issue as redundant now,  since  most of  these patients  are taken up for emergency revascularisations

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