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Archive for the ‘Cardiology-Land mark studies’ Category

Dr Shirely Smith  from charring cross hospital London  wrote this masterpiece  in BMJ in the year 1962 . He was doing a research about the origin of angina like pain in patients who had  upper GI disease or disorders of cervical spine .He found a hidden invisible neural link between heart and it’s neighboring viscera. What he  referred it as linked angina . It links the  pain from ,Esophagus,  gall bladder ,  duodenum ,  cervical spine to the  heart .

This article I  consider as one of the  all time classics in  clinical cardiology . Here is the link for linked angina (Courtesy of BMJ)

linked angina atypical angina abdominal angina  shirley smith cornelio papp 2 bmj

linked angina atypical angina abdominal angina  shirley smith cornelio papp bmj

High lights ( Inferred )  from the  article

We know angina typically occurs on exertion .If it occurs at rest we call it as unstable angina .

Can it occur at rest other than unstable angina ?

Yes it can . ( Post prandial ,Nocturnal, emotional etc)

Can the  heart be the referral site for visceral pain ?

Yes .It seems so .

Can visceral pain be trigger for  developing true angina ?

Again possible . A Patient with documented CAD  develop  a true esophageal pain it is likely  to  induce a sensation of  angina  rather than abdominal pain .Similarly , cervical pain may represent a masked angina in a patient  with active cervical spondylitis .(Homing in of angina to the nearest non cardiac culprit )

 

Final message

Those were the times when the brain worked more than hands . Common sense prevailed over machine sense .This article argues for a  big debate about the origin of so called atypical angina in a patient with multiple common visceral conditions.Even 50 years later we have little clue  about alimentary -cardiac neural spill over !

Reference

http://www.bmj.com/highwire/filestream/276395/field_highwire_article_pdf/0/1425

Postamble

Today we live in a complex and confusing and commercial  medical world .We have atleast  a dozen chest  pain triaging protocols in ER . Still errors are  rampant. Errors are acceptable . . . but this one was an absolute  shocker  . . .  “I know a  patient with vague chest/epigastric  pain  , non specific T inversion ,  documented gall stones , landed in cath lab not by accident but  by meticulous planning !”

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* Obfuscation:  hiding of intended meaning in communication, making communication confusing, wilfully ambiguous, and harder to interpret

This world can not be a perfect place and  it is foolish to expect the same !   What is published in medical literature is at best , an abstract thinking  of an unfinished agenda . Still public think  science is   . . . what doctors say ! They feel doctors can not simply watch a person  dying. They want us  act like  God. This is  how medical men became Demi-Gods  by default.

Here was a big opportunity . Who exploited it ? Obviously the greedy corporates  who embarked  on a dirty journey to en- cash this trust  and fill their coffers .This is the foundation  on which the  basics of medical market economy rides !

It is an un-pardonable on-going deceit among  modern human civilization . It has  spoiled  the trust between the patient and doctor and  probably  irreversibly  contaminated  in recent decades !

There are very few positives  though,  with occasional noble medical  souls (Like  BMJ,Lancet )   trying to keep the sinking ship afloat !

This sounding board article (Now we rarely  get to see )  from NEJM way back  in 1975  exposes a  shocking revelation  politely . Now, 40 years after ,  the importance of such article has grown  many fold . We are witnessing  every day ,  medical scientist break  stories ( Yes  . . . it is story )  in general media  with  absolute academic cowardice !

We expect more such  face bashing articles from NEJM . It would definitely  make   immense  good  for  our profession  which needs it  desperately !

Reference

I’m linking the original NEJM article ; Hope it does not violate copy right !

http://www.bumc.bu.edu/facdev-medicine/files/2011/03/Crichton_M_nejm1975_293_1257_medical-obfuscation_structure-function.pdf

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A one stop  solution  for every  thing you need about  right ventricle !

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/117/11/1436.full.pdf+html

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Maude -E -Abbot 

The  first book on congenital  heart disease

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This man enters your cath lab  every morning !  . . .  He is Mr Stent !

Endo-prothe`ses coronariennes autoexpansives.”

    “Endo-prothe`ses coronariennes autoexpansives.”  This is the official name given to coronary stents  when it was first used in man in 1986 in France . The first  stent in human coronary artery was implanted by Puel . Followed by Sigwart  ,Puel combine .

Later on  , the name Stent came into vogue . Surprisingly stent is not a technical name . It is a name of British dentist. To know more about the historical aspects of coronary stents read the following review from Circulation.

References

http://www.fauchard.org/history/articles/jdh/v49n2_July01/charles_stent_49_2.html

1 .Puel  J, Joffre  F, Rousseau  H;  et al.  Endo-protheses coronariennes auto-expansives dans le prevention des restenoses apres angioplastie transluminale, Arch Mal Coeur 8 1987 1311-131

2. Sigwart U, Puel J, Mirkovitch V, Joffre F, Kappenberger L. Intravascular stents to prevent occlusion and restenosis after
transluminal angioplasty. N Engl J Med. 1987; 316: 701-706.

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The principles of pre-discharge EST  

This concept came about 20 years ago (1980s) to risk stratify patients following  ACS to triage early coronary angiogram and revascualrisation. Generally patients are discharged by 5-7 days after an MI  (May be  3-5 days in some hospitals)  . Doing an exercise stress test  early within  2 weeks has not been very popular with many cardiologist even though it was recommended by many guidelines.The type of stress recommended  here  , is heart rate limited sub maximal 70% of  THR (Usually around  140 /mt )  is performed . This is due fear of precipitation another ACS.

Still,  there are definite  advantages for  pre-discharge EST .It help us  identify  high risk  subsets of  STEMI and reduce the  intermediate term mortality .More importantly it  gives  us an opportunity  to  exclude  inappropriate  revascualriations  even without an angiogram . (The well known coronary dogma  ie  if a post STEMI patient performs > 10  METS ,  his  heart carries little  risk  for  future events  still holds good  !)

With the advent of liberal usage of CAG and improved techniques of revascularistion ,  most  patients  directly undergo pre-discharge CAG rather than EST !

Further reading

Does any cardiologist have guts to do a pre- discharge EST after  a successful primary PCI ?

Read a related article in this blog .

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Who said  knowledge comes at a cost . Here is a great resource . Everything about 3D echo

A sample of   3D echo  evaluation of  mitral valve anatomy

http://www.escardio.org/communities/EAE/3d-echo-box/3d-echo-atlas/mitral-valve/Pages/normal-mitral-valve.aspx

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