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Posts Tagged ‘paclitaxel’

Do you fear to deploy DES during primary PCI ?

  1. No. Not at all !
  2. May be  “Yes”
  3. Yes, definitely
  4. It depends upon which drug it Elutes !

Answers  that might  decode  the  cardiologist  mind. ( Excuse me  if it errs !)

If the answer is 1 ,  You are the most optimistic cardiologist  and scientifically  updated ,   data driven  cardiologist , and with little concern for the patient welfare.

If the answer is 2 , Your are a cautious cardiologist may be . . . may be . . .  an   ideal one . The chances of you , using a  DES is  still low in  STEMI.

If the answer is 3 , You are a pessimist and  with   anti technology thoughts but still you  have more concern  for  your patients!

If your answer is 4 ,  You are undecided  and probably  ignorant as well . Most likely   you would not use it  for some reason  .You need to read more  on the topic .

By the way , my answer is  response three.

Read further ,  the EXAMINATION trial just released in ESC 2011 Paris .

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Fundamental principle  of  human biological system is to live in harmony with nature and environment.Each cell  has a unique reaction  when it comes into contact with  external  material. This reaction can be acute or chronic  ,   local or systemic. The most severe form of allergy is called anaphylaxis  that can result in instantaneous loss of life. There  is a whole gamut of disorders  that  resulted  in a  separate  speciality called allergic medicine .

Further ,the transplantation  science have   taught us  an  organ or cell can be rejected at any point of time after implantation (Hyperacute -chronic) .With advancement of science we have started implanting a variety of devices  with complex metallurgy ,inside human body, metal clips, prosthesis, valves, wires, etc .How the body handles them .The consequences can be a mild reaction to major ones occasionally.

Consider ,a local allergy due to a orthopedic prosthesis  in one of the leg bones  is far less serious than a metal within a coronary artery  irritating the intima .

Remember hypersensitivity reactions can be severe . This lady reacted  like this to a sandal slipper -A  fiery red  infiltration

contact dermatits stent allergy pci coronary

Imagine  if a stented coronary artery react like this what would be the possible consequence ?

In susceptible  individuals  , can a metal cause

  • Intimal hyperemia
  • Intimal induration
  • Intimo-medial edema  following stent deployment

pci stent coronary angiogram thrombosis des

Why drug eluting stents are more prone for hypersensitivity ?

The answer is simple , while metal allergy is a comparatively rare phenomenon, the drugs we  coat and the polymers used are  many fold likely to result in hypersensitivity reaction.

While  the world is worried  more  about penicillin , sulpha allergy which occurs in 1 in 100000 ,  we tend to ignore the metal and drug  reactions within  the tender coronary arteries.

stent des rejection virmani  pci

What is  the clinical expression of  stent hypersensitivity ?

It is  often a coronary event in the acute phase and restenosis in chronic phase.

How much of acute stent thrombosis is related to stent allergy mediated reaction ?

The exact incidence  will  never be known. It could be high. Whenever a sudden unexpected early stent occlusion can be a suspect .

Is stent allergy a local reaction or systemic reaction ?

It is most often local .The drugs the stent elute can elicit a systemic reaction occasionally.

So what can be done to prevent this complication ?

Drug companies in it’s  package regularly  include the warning  message ! What does it imply to have a caution  on the covers ? .This warning simply represent about our ignorance in this issue. We presume it is a minor problem.

pci stent thrombosis stent allergy metal

Questions unanswered

  1. How does a cardiac patient knows whether he is hypersensitive to stainless steel or nickel ?
  2. Is it practical to have a stent allergic test in every patient before PCI ?
  3. Is routine administration of corticosteroids for few days after PCI an answer ?

Reference

R.Virmani , circulation 2004

http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/109/6/701?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=stent+%27allergy%22+&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT

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pci-ptca-ebm-stent

Scientifically ,  the  indication for coronary revascularisation   should be  based on following

  1. Patient’s  symptom ( more specifically angina , dyspnea is less important !)
  2. Prov0kable  ischemia  ( A significantly positive stress test )
  3. Signifcant LV dysfunction with  documented  viable myocardium &  residual ischemia
  4. A revascularisation eligible coronary anatomy * TVD/Left main/Proximal LAD etc ( *Either 1, 2 or 3 should be  present  in addition )
  5. All emergency PCI during STEMI /High risk NSTEMI

Practically ,

A CAD  patient  may fulfill  “Any of the above 5 or  “None of the above 5” ,  but ,  if   a coronary obstruction  was  revealed  by coronary angiogram  and if he  fulfils The 6th criteria , he becomes  eligible for  revascualrisation

6th criteria

If the patient has  enough monetary   resources (by self  ) or by  an  insurance company  to take care of PCI /CABG *

*The sixth  criteria overrides all other criteria in many of the cath labs .Of course , there are few genuine ones still  fighting hard , to keep the commerce out ,  from contaminating cardiology !

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Stents are mechanical  devices like  a  spring ,  used to  keep an artery open after a PTCA or PCI.

des-why4

                                Bare metal stents(BMS) were found to have restenois rate of about 25%.  So it was perceived a stent should have it’s own protective coat , so that it won’t get restenosed.For this the researchers thought  anti cancer drugs are ideal as they block cell proliferation and thus neovascualrisation and restenosis.Alas, they were found dismally wrong ,  after all , neointiaml proliferation is only a part of the problem of restenosis  and simple blocking of cell growth is insufficient . The issue doesn’t stop with that, the anti cancer drugs incorporated within the stent simply can not differentiate normal from abnormal cells and

DES effectively blocks the normal endothelisation over the stents and make this highly vulnerable for acute stent thrombosis .

This complication is unique to DES and can result in SCD.Further ,during the last 6 years of DES , we recognised the restenosis rate has increased form the much hyped O % to almost 15% and it’s still growing . These  complications  has made a huge question mark over the future of drug eluting stents !

des-coverage

The concept of DES may not die , but which drug it should elute should be answered ! This  again is  going to be a long battle. So it is currently   adviced,  based  on common sense ( With due respects to  those RCTs  funded by industry )

Whenever you encounter a block within the coronary artery* Ask the following  questions in sequence  ,

  • Whether we can leave it alone  with medical therapy  ,  if the answer is no , proceed  to the next step !
  • Is there a possibility for plain balloon angioplasty in a given vessel (POBA, Yes !  the concept is not dead yet !)
  • If you decide a stent is required , Will  the  bare metal  do the job ?
  • In multivessel CAD  , Did the issue of increased metal load on the  long term outcome was considered ?
  • If lesions appear complex,  should we  not strongly consider CABG as an option ?

However  if we  have the habit of  ask ing the following  question  you are likely to deviate from scientific approach  

Is it possible to put a stent  across  the block ?

Yes , will be the answer most of the time ,and the patient will invariably get one or more stents  and carry a life long  stent related problems.

*The rule does not apply in Acute coronary syndromes

Also read this letter  posted by the author published in  British medical journal

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                                      One of the important principles of  post PCI care is,   we need  to be very careful  till the metal struts are fully endothelialised . This is of vital importance as improper endothelialisation  is a powerful trigger and nidus for a  imminent thrombosis and  acute coronary syndrome.

stent

It is a billion dollor irony , the much hyped DES does exactly what we don’t want ! and still it’s  usage is  increasing world wide .  The drugs (Anti cancer agents)  which coat the DES   are the villains as it  prevents  the  metal struts  from being endothelialised  and  keep the metal surface  raw and vulnerable , while the  much maligned  bare metal stents allow  this natural endothelialisation  process  without any interruption ! So right now it is mandatory  to administer dual antiplatelet agents  life long( life of the stent !)   for the patients with DES.

 Just look , at the following image of  a stent in vitro at  30 days follow up

des

des-2

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